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Communication process contains elements like source, transmitter, and channel of transmission, the destination and receiver. The sender encodes the message while the…
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PBH 300 Exam 2 study guide Chapter 6 Describe the communication process, keeping in mind the Shannon-weaver model and Harold Laswell.
The communication process involves the production and transfer of information from a sender to the receiver. Communication process contains elements like source, transmitter, and channel of transmission, the destination and receiver. The sender encodes the message while the receiver decodes the message.
What are the factors that affect the communication process?
The factors affecting communication include context of communication, relationship between the parties to the communication and the process of decoding and encoding the message.
Be able to define organization development, community mobilization and empowerment
Organization development is defined as a philosophy or approach to change within an organization that considers the organization as a structure of human beings.
Community mobilization is a cooperative action by the public to raise awareness regarding an issue affecting the community.
Empowerment refers to the public take charge of an issue facing the society, set goals and implement ideas to deal with the issue.
What is the difference between biological anthropology and cultural anthropology
Biological anthropology evaluates health behaviour being a species adaptation due to environmental interaction while cultural anthropology evaluates health behaviour being part of living, which incorporates action with significance, representation and value that are connected to the social structure.
Be able to provide an example of a political-economic approach
Political economic approach example is the influence of a political view on the economy, political pressure to use green energy influences the labor market.
Chapter 7
Know why planning is critical to a public health intervention
Planning is critical as it ensures resources in the public health sector are used efficiently.
Three steps of the planning approach
The three steps involved include assessment of issue, development of intervention and evaluation of intervention.
Name and describe the 9 stages of the Precede-Proceed model
Stage 1 is social assessment- assesses the quality of life and the social factors surrounding the issue.
Stage 2 is epidemiological assessment- assesses the incident of health issue, co-morbid conditions and the populous affected.
Stage 3 is behavioral and environmental assessment- assesses the behavioral and environmental issues associated with the health issue as acknowledged in the epidemiology data.
Stage 4 is educational and ecological assessment that assesses educational and ecological information contributing to the behavioral and environmental risk.
Stage 5 is administrative and policy assessment- it evaluates the resources that support development and implementation of the health program.
Stage 6 is implementation stage where the program is implemented.
Stage 7 is evaluation stage where program implementation is assessed.
Stage 8 is impact assessment stage where the short-term effect of the program is assessed.
Stage 9 is the evaluation of outcome where the long-term impact of the program is assessed.
Be able to apply Precede-Proceed to a hypothetical problem
The effect of aids in the society can be evaluated using the model.
What is the different between process, impact and outcome evaluations?
Process evaluation refers to implementation of components; impact evaluation evaluates the short-term goals while outcome evaluation evaluates long-term goals.
Name and describe the three phases of the risk protective factors model
Phase 1 is assessment if risk factors- balance of risk or protective factors are evaluated in relation to the issue.
Phase 2 is implementation stage- implementation of programs that reduce risk and increase protective factors in a community.
Phase 3 is evaluation stage- evaluates the change in risk and protective factor after program implementation.
Examples of the domains of protective and risk factors.
Risk factors domains include: environment, Community Individual, Peer, School, Society and Family while Protective factors domain include; Social bonding, Individual, Healthy beliefs and clear behavior standards.
Chapter 8
What are the Institute of Medicine’s three types of interventions?
Interventions include universal, selective and indicative programs
Describe the difference between “community intervention” and “interventions in the community”
Community intervention results in a smaller change over a large group while intervention in the community is a more targeted intervention in the society and has a big change.
Define and give examples of what “tailoring” is.
Tailoring is developing a program or modifying an old program to suit the situation affecting the community like using self help groups to grow vegetable for HIV patients.
Know the steps of adapting a program
The steps involved in adapting a program include, assessment of the issue, formative research and continued evaluation and assessment of program.
What is sustainability?
The ability to ensure continuity of the program long after initial funding is used up is referred to as sustainability.
What politics are run into when selecting a target population for a health issue?
Political issues include the source of funding, selecting the health issue to fund from a number of health issues and influence of advocacy groups towards an issue.
Chapter 9
Know the names of the five assessments used in a workplace setting and describe them.
Administrative assessment- assesses the workplace benefits, resource available for healthcare promotion and availability of unions.
Educational/ecological assessment- assesses the enabling and strengthening factors in the workplace.
Behavioral and environmental assessment- assesses the behavioral and environmental risks affecting workers in the workplace.
Epidemiological assessment- assesses the health conditions relating to the workplace.
Social assessment- assesses the social factors in the workplace.
What three theories are relevant to workplace characteristics?
The three theories relevant to workplace characteristics include social cognitive theory, social networking theory and diffusion of innovation.
Give examples of workplace characteristics when developing and intervention
Identification of leaders or influencers, identification of friends within the group and presence of social norms concerning health related to behaviour are some of the characteristics in the work set up.
Name the similarities of workplace and school settings
Similarities between workplace and school setting include the access to target populace and the synergy between business goals and health objectives.
Name the five assessments of school settings and be able to provide examples of each
Educational and ecological assessment-social norms like teen pregnancy
Administrative assessment – availability of teachers
Behavioral and environmental assessment-school diet and presence of lead based paint.
Social assessment-availability of recreational space in the school
Epidemiological assessment –health issues in the school like clean drinking water.
Issues (awareness, attitudes and skill building) that can be addressed in the school environment
Resources for teachers and youth, confidence building exercises, skills to counter risks and personal risks are some of the issues that can be addressed in the school environment.
Be able to use theory and planning to develop a school-based intervention
Using school based interventions to help the students in the classroom and during interactions out of the classroom.
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