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Structure and Function of the Lower Limb - Essay Example

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The purpose of this paper is to determine the primary, secondary and tertiary functions of the muscles crossing the hip and knee joints.Changes in the relative ranking of the primary,secondary and tertiary functions of each muscle were investigated for the different limb positions during normal gait…
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Structure and Function of the Lower Limb
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Download file to see previous pages The functions of each muscle, about a given joint, were determined by computing the moment arms relative to three perpendicular axes centered at the joint. The axes were defined so that a moment about each axis produced a rotation corresponding to one of the usual descriptions of limb rotation (flexion, abduction, etc.). The force which produced a unit moment about one of the three axes was then determined.
Generally, this force also produced moments about the other two axes. The primary function of a muscle the intermediate moment, and the tertiary function to the direction of the least of the three moments. The changes in the functions of the muscles as the joint position changed were determined for muscles acting about the hip and knee joints during normal gait.
The muscle force needed to produce a unit moment about one of the axes was computed from the moment arm of the muscle about each joint. The moment arm was determined assuming the muscle or a segment of a muscle acted in a straight line from its origin to insertion.
Locations of origins and insertions
The origins and insertions of thirty seven muscles crossing the joints of the lower limb were obtained using the averaged data of Brand et al. (2002). Muscle origins and insertions were located in coordinate systems fixed on the pelvis, femur and tibia. For each muscle, the origin was given in the coordinate system attached to the bone from which the muscle originated,
and the insertion was given in the coordinate system attached to the bone to which the muscle inserted. ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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