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Investigative Paper on Lasik Surgery - Essay Example

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LASIK1 is used to treat a variety of vision problems, including myopia2, astigmatism, and hyperopia.3 In all these cases the eye is healthy, but deformed so that the light entering the eye is not focused on the retina. In theory, adjusting the shape of the cornea should compensate for the misshapen globe.
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Investigative Paper on Lasik Surgery
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Download file to see previous pages Doctors also put a pneumatic suction ring on the eye and intraocular pressure is raised to about 65mmhg which prevents the eye from rolling around in the patient's head. The doctor then uses a microkeratome4 or a femtosecond laser to cut a three-sided flap in outer layer of the cornea. The cut is between 100-180 microns deep depending on the patient and includes the epithelium and Bowman's Membrane. The flap is pealed back to reveal the stromal layer and an excimer laser 5 beam is used to remove part of the cornea, thereby reshaping it. This process is known as ablative photo-decomposition. The flap is then folded back onto the eye and will self-adhere to the remainder of the cornea. The convalescence period is generally 3-6 months.
Study after study proves the overall safety and effectiveness of LASIK. In a 1996 study involving 62 severely myopic eyes, the LASIK procedure improved the mean refraction from -14.80 D to -1.7 D.6 The mean regression7 of myopia was just -.2 D (Knorz, et al, 1996 a). Another study shows similar results for moderately myopic eyes. In this instance LASIK surgery improved the mean refraction of the eyes from -14.3 D to -1.4D (Knorz, et al, 1996 b). In hyperopic eyes, results were similar. ...
After 6 months, 100% of cases in group A and 95.3% of the cases in group B were within +/-1.0D of emmetropia. However, LASIK improved vision to this degree in only 71.4% of the eyes in group C (Argento & Costino, 1998).
There are some troubling side-effects that are common among people who have had LASIK surgery. A meta-study published in the European Journal of Medical Research found that over-correction, under-correction and regression occurred in patients 24% of the time and the hazy vision occurred in 15% of post-operative LASIK patients (Lamparter, et al, 2005). One study undertaken in Japan shows that LASIK had over a 95% effectiveness rate but that in 10.5% of the cases, there was hemorrhage of the corneal limbus during surgery. DLK, a condition in which the cornea begins attacking itself, occurred in 2.3% of the eyes. .04% of the eyes studied developed an infection and epithelial in-growth occurred in .1% of the eyes (Sun, et al, 2005). Many smaller studies bear out the findings of the meta-studies. According to a study performed by Robert T. Lin and Robert T. Maloney, the flap of cornea did not heal properly after LASIK 8.6% of the time (Lin & Maloney, pg 129). Another common complication is the development of dry-eye. A 2005 study showed that among Caucasians, LASIK surgery increased the incidence of chronic dry-eye from 5% to 7% of the population (Albeitz, et al, 91).
Some complications of LASIK, such as over-correction, under-correction haziness and regression, result in the surgery having to be performed again. The literature shows that performing a second LASIK surgery is safe and generally have good ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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