ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - CONCEPTS [Your name goes here] [Your class name goes here] [Due date of the paper] Answer 1 Part a The menstrual cycle occurs every month in women from the age of puberty till menopause. An ovarian cycle refers to the process in which a mature oocyte erupts from the ovary and moves down to the uterus…
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In case of fertilization, the egg is implanted in the uterine lining which consequently stops the menstruation cycle to occur again during the term of pregnancy. The ovarian cycle does not repeat if the oocyte becomes fertilized. After fertilization and conception, the process of embryo development starts which causes an end to the ovarian cycle all through the term of pregnancy. Part b On the other hand, a new oocyte matures during the next ovarian cycle if fertilization does not occur. The uterine lining also becomes thin and breaks down which causes menstruation to occur again. The egg which is released from the ovary needs approximately 12 to 48 hours to be fertilized. If fertilization does not occur, the egg disintegrates. After almost two weeks of this process, menstruation begins again upon shedding of the thick uterus lining. The lining of the uterus is there to support the pregnancy. However, when there is no fertilization, the lining breaks down and sheds in response of which the next cycle of menstruation begins. To state it all in more academic medical terms, one can say that after a couple of weeks approximately, the corpus luteum involutes if fertilization does not occur. ...
In lumen, the production of this type of cells take place in the process of which they pass through three main stages; the formation of Type A (p) spermatocytes, Type A (d) spermatocytes, and type B spermatocytes. The stem cells, known as Type A spermatogonia, divide to from A1 spematogonium and A2 spematogonium. The A1 spermatogonium divides itself, whereas the A2 spematogonium divides further to form A3 spematogonium which continues to form A4 spematogonia. The A4 spematogonia can form the intermediate spematogonium which can further divide mitotically to produce Type B spematogonia. The Type B spermatogonia undergo the last stage of mitotic cell division to form primary spermatocytes. Part b The production of primary spermatocytes does not stop; rather through meiotic cell division, it continues to produce the secondary spermatocytes (Tortora and Derrickson 2008, p. 99). The formation of secondary spematocytes is done as the first stage of meiosis division as the mitotic division ends with the formation of primary spermatocytes. Here, one point to be mentioned is that the first stage of meiosis does not transform the primary spermatocytes into a single spermatocyte, rather each primary spermaticyte yields a pair of secondary spermatocytes while completing the meiosis I division. The meiosis I division refers to reduction division as the homologous pairs of chromosomes are separated to produce haploid secondary spermatocytes. Part c The formation of two spermatids is the further division of each secondary spermatocyte (Tortora and Derrickson 2008, p. 99). When sister chromatids are separated in meiosis II process, a pair of spermatids are formed as a result. The spermatids are also known as haploid male gametids. An important point regarding spermatids is
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