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HUMAN TOXIC THREAT RISK ASSESSMENT - Essay Example

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Air Pollution 3rd, March 2013 Air pollution is common in various cities and affects a larger number of people, since this occurs more frequently in the environment. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) notes that air pollution occurs everywhere, but greatly affects city dwellers…
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HUMAN TOXIC THREAT RISK ASSESSMENT
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Download file to see previous pages However, children and the elderly people are more vulnerable to air pollution. Nonetheless, anyone can be affected when they inhale the toxic substances in the air or take food or water that is contaminated with these toxins (ATSDR, 2009). In 2011, the American Lung Association reported that nearly all major cities in the USA are affected by air pollution, and the toxic air in these cities poses a health challenge to the cities’ population. More than half of the American population is exposed to toxic air pollution in their surrounding environment. Air pollution occurs through many ways. The most common ways include emissions from factories and factories. Additionally, air pollutants exist in liquid, gas, and solid forms and most of these occur because of human activity. Major health effects of air pollution include respiratory diseases and heart diseases (Rogers, 2011). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognizes only six main air pollutants, which are common in the whole of the U.S.A. These include Lead, Sulphur Dioxide, Ozone, particulate matter, Nitrogen Dioxides, and Carbon Monoxide. However, particulate matter are more common compared to the other five air pollutants. These affect humans and the environment in an adverse way. Mainly, people affected by air pollution will suffer from various respiratory diseases, lung and heart diseases, and in extreme cases, might succumb to premature death (EPA, 2012). According to EPA (2012), the nature of Ozone determines its influence on humans and the environment. Good Ozone occurs naturally, and protects the environment form harmful UV rays. This layer is found in the earth’s stratosphere. On the other hand, bad ozone is the air pollutant, and forms a layer closer to the earth’s surface. The bad Ozone is composed of exhaust fumes from automobile, emissions from industries, and chemical solvents, among others. This layer resembles smog covering most cities in the U.S.A. Particulate matter comprises both tiny solid and liquid particles in the air. These can be metallic, soil, or dust particles and particles, which are acidic in nature. These particles are inhalable by humans, and settle in the lungs. On the other hand, Carbon Monoxide is a toxic gas emitted from automobiles and combustion process. Production of CO utilizes Oxygen, thus reducing amount of Oxygen in the environment. If inhaled, a person might experience insufficient Oxygen in their body. In addition, Nitrogen Monoxide gas is a toxic gas produced through high-temperature combustion, and forms part of the bad Ozone. Furthermore, Sulphur Dioxide is a toxic chemical compound produced by industries, volcanic action, and power plants. This too forms part of the bad Ozone, and affects the human respiratory system in an adverse manner. Finally, Lead in most manufactured products is toxic. However, Lead smelters are responsible for most of the Lead emissions today (EPA, 2012). Each source of air pollution, including ozone layer, Sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, among others have a unique effect on the body and health of individuals, which are observable after a few days or several weeks following exposure to air pollution. In addition, air pollution causes invisibility, in most cities of the U.S., which poses a challenge to those driving on the roads. Some of the health effects of air pollution include coughs, headache, malaise, conjuvital irritation, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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