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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Essay Example

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INTRODUCTION Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the more commonly used imaging techniques used to aid diagnosis. It uses powerful magnets and radio waves to make images (Dugdale, 2010). However, emotional distress and lack of immobility not only lessen the quality of the resulting image, but it also causes adverse effects onto the health of the patient…
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
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Download file to see previous pages In fact, it has been shown that MRI images are better for children who were given general anesthesia. However, the effects of these drugs vary by age and disease of the patient (Medical Advisory Secretariat, 2003). Figure 1. An MRI image taken from a moving patient. From CT Dictionary [online] Available at: INDICATION FOR MONITORING Monitoring is important because staying close to the machine poses health risk to anesthesiologist or nurse assistant (Shellock, 2011). Monitoring is needed among patients who are high-risk, physically or mentally unstable patients, patients with abnormal physiologic functions, critically-ill, patients who are unable to communicated, such as sedated or anesthesized patients, neonatal or pediatric patients, patients undergoing MR-guided management, and patients who are at risk of having a reaction to contrast dyes or anesthesia. Monitoring allows anticipation of life-threatening conditions upon observation of minor changes in physiological functions (Shellock, 2011). Sedation poses greater threat among those at risk of respiratory and cardiac problems or any change in physiologic status as the sedated patient may get into respiratory depression or hemodynamic imbalance without being able to inform the MRI technologist. For pediatric patients, this is around 10% of children who underwent MRI (Shellock, 2011). In addition, injured or critically ill patients can acquire central nervous system or cardiorespiratory complications once given with anesthesia, and thus need close monitoring during the MRI procedure (Medical Advisory Secretariat, 2003). SELECTION OF PHYSIOLOGIC MONITORING PARAMETERS Vital and cardiorespiratory parameters are determined because these are usually altered during anxiety attacks. Changes in these body systems also manifest especially for ill patients exposed to this unusual environment. More importantly, these symptoms are commonly fatal once ignored (Medical Advisory Secretariat, 2003). Checking the temperature is important because anesthesia suppresses the regulation of core body temperature, which is controlled by the hypothalamus. Although fluctuations normally occur because of diurnal, internal and external factors, the body’s temperature is maintained between 36°C to 38°C. Hypothermia results from failure of these regulatory mechanisms, and this manifests as hypovolemia, myocardial ischemia, cardiac arrhythmia, pulmonary edema, decreased cerebral blood flow, and even death. In contrast, drug-induced malignant hyperthermia may also occur. Specifically, an abnormal increase in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism happens, which overwhelms the body's capacity to oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal, as well as regulates body temperature. Malignant hyperthermia can eventually lead to circulatory collapse and death if not quickly identified and treated (Shellock, 2011). For any of the parameters to be checked, it is important that the sites at which they are measured has clinical relevance and provides a relatively fast response time to fluctuations, no matter how minute (Shellock, 2011). PERSONNEL Of course, the skilled MRI radiologist or technician should be present to operate the machine properly. In addition, the use of monitoring devices during the MRI procedure are of no use if there is no anesthesiologist or nurse anesthesist present ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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