Presentation for Type 2 Diabetes - Case Study Example

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Running Head: CASE PRESENTATION FOR TYPE II DIABETES Case Presentation for Type II Diabetes Sasha- University- Brief Definition of the Disorder Type II diabetes is defined as the inability of the body to tolerate carbohydrate as exemplified by insulin resistance, relative deficiency of insulin, excessive production of glucose in the liver, and hyperglycemia…
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Case Presentation for Type 2 Diabetes
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Download file to see previous pages The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) reported that approximately 1.9 million new cases of diabetes among people ages 20 years old and above were reported in 2010. Other than accidents or injury, diabetes became the leading cause of blindness, kidney failure, and amputation of feet and legs, making diabetes as the 7th leading cause of death listed in the year 2007. Lastly, CDC (2011) noted that a diabetic person has twice the risk of dying compared to individuals not diagnosed with diabetes, establishing a fact that a diabetic person has a shorter life expectancy. Pathophysiology of the Disorder Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disorder caused by genetics and environmental elements affecting the functioning of the beta – cell of the pancreas, and insulin sensitivity to muscle, liver, adipose, and pancreatic tissue (Scheen, 2003 and Kardori, 2011). It is characterized by a combination of inadequate secretion of insulin by beta – cells of the pancreas and resistance to peripheral insulin resulting to elevated free fatty acids in the plasma and decreased transport of glucose into muscle cells, elevated production of glucose in the liver, increased breakdown of fat, and deteriorating functioning of beta cell that eventually leads to failure of the beta cells (Mahler and Adler, 1999 and Khardori, 2011). Scheen (2003) added that although the mechanisms remain unclear, these factors including dysfunction of the beta – cell and reduced sensitivity to insulin were agreed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Adipose tissue is also recognized to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes mellitus since most of the individuals with type 2 diabetes are obese with truncal obesity (Scheen, 2003). The following is a case presentation study that illustrates the use of medical research knowledge in managing a patient diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hypothetical Patient Presentation with the Disorder History P.G. is a 59 year old man with a 10 year history of type II diabetes. The initial symptoms of easy fatigability, polyuria, polydipsia, slight blurring of vision and erectile dysfunction brought P.G. to seek consult in 2001. Fasting blood sugar, obtained twice, revealed he had diabetes (145 mg/dL and 140 mg/dL). The hemoglobin A1c test result of 7% also suggests positive findings for diabetes. He has a positive family history of type II diabetes in the maternal side. P.G. was referred to an endocrinologist, and was advised to take Metformin 500 three times daily and to exercise at least 45 minutes daily; however, he was not compliant with his medication and exercise regimen. Recently, P.G. complained of slight numbness in the right lower extremity, polyuria, fatigue, and erectile dysfunction. Symptoms P.G. presented with initial symptoms of easy fatigability, polyuria, polydipsia, slight blurring of vision, and erectile dysfunction, which are consistent with the symptoms of diabetes, namely, weight gain, frequent infection of the urinary bladder, kidney, and skin, yeast infection especially in the skin and vagina, fatigue, hunger, increased thirst and urination, nocturia, loss of visual acuity, erectile dysfunction, numbness and tingling of both hands and feet, and neuropathy (PubMed Health, 2011 and Brashers, 2006). Physical Exam Findings Physical examination findings ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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