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Preventing Diabetes and Obesity - Research Paper Example

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Samantha Wahrsager Course Tutor 7 August 2012 Preventing Diabetes and Obesity Introduction Type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes, which are autoimmune disorders, are most common. Nonetheless, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasingly becoming prevalent among pregnant women…
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Download file to see previous pages T1D results when the immune system destroys beta cells. Pre-emption and treatment of type 1 diabetes is possible, but more research is necessary to gain full understanding and identify accurately the activating factors causing autoimmunity. Type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus have similar pathophysiological aspects. This paper discusses the causes of diabetes in relation to environmental and genetic factors. It also discusses the possible treatment for diabetes. Epidemiology of Diabetes Diabetes is increasingly becoming prevalent globally and statistics project that 5.4% of world population will be diabetic by 2025. Prevalence tends to increase with age. Approximately 40% of people receive no diagnosis. T2D is the most common diabetes, as it accounts for approximately 90% of incident rates (IR), whereas T1D accounts for large proportion of the remainder. GDM affects pregnant women of reproductive age commonly obese and overweight (Kaaja & Ronnemaa 195). Approximately 12% of people aged between 40 and 75 are diabetic with about 19% comprising people older than 75. T2D is increasingly becoming prevalent among young people too. Africans, Latinos, South Asians, and First Nations are more vulnerable to diabetes. The rising IR of diabetes implies that there is an increase in yearly rate of heart diseases, two to three times in the coming years (Woo and Yang 2). Etiology of Diabetes The interplay between gene and environment tend to cause type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Empirical evidence has not fully established the root causes of this disorder. According to Ehehalt et al. (2009), diet is an environmental factor that plays significant role in rising incidence rate of T1D with meat consumption partly responsible for rising prevalence of T1D. Research on migration determinants elicits mixed reactions. Migration research investigates and evaluates the rate of T1D disorder before and after migration, so that shift in rate subsequent to immigration signifies predominance of environmental factors. People with high-risk HLA genotypes are more susceptible to T1D. Statistical evidence indicates that people diagnosed with high-risk HLA genotypes for TID have been decreasing recently (Ehehalt et al. 614). Researchers have investigated environmental factors that cause diabetes; they include viruses, climate changes, toxins, fats, soy products, whole milk, wheat gluten, coffee, and tea (Moran, Omen & Pietropaolo 321). On the contrary, the incident rate of a country tends to emphasize the genetic predisposition as a factor (Ehehalt et al. 614). Environmental and genetic factors tend to cause increase in T1D rate among adolescents and children. In fact, children and adolescents tend to undergo similar risk factors for developing T1D symptoms despite residing either in their native countries or abroad. The widespread variability of incident rate (IR) of T1D indicates involvement of genetic factors. Conversely, the rising prevalence rates of T1D among general population indicate that there is involvement of environmental factors (Ehehalt et al. 616). Genetic research links leukocyte antigens, especially class II alleles, to predisposition to Type 1 diabetes. The insulin gene located on chromosome 11p15, and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) located on chromosome 6p21 play role in familial heredity. The HLA genes confer greater risk to T1D because these genes specifically tend to encode class II ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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