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Planning Health Promotion Interventions Report - Essay Example

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Planning Health Promotion and Interventions Date Abstract The essay aims to address a two-fold objective to wit: (1) to identify the causes of smoking; and (2) to apply the Ottawa Charter of Health Promotion in designing interventions against smoking…
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Planning Health Promotion Interventions Report

Download file to see previous pages... 214). Tobacco smoke does not only affect smokers but also second-hand smokers. In fact, out of 435,000 tobacco-related deaths, 35,000 deaths are attributed to the second-hand smoke (Schneider, 2011, p. 214). Women live longer than men and the mortality advantage of women is believed to be related to the gender-gap in terms of smoking. Despite extensive campaigns against smoking and its harmful effects, most of the people go onto smoking and find it hard to quit the health-endangering habit. According to Ashton Stepney (1982), the drive to smoke is influenced by medical, political, sociological, and economic factors (p. IX). Sutton, Baum & Johnston (2004) added biological factors as one of the factors why people engaged in smoking (p. 12). Biological factors point out heredity as the cause of smoking and people will begin and continue smoking if they carry on the specific gene for smoking; likewise, the same is true for people who find it easy to quit smoking. Medical cause are the desirable effects derived from tobacco such as increased alertness and decreased symptoms of withdrawal, anxiety, and pain. Social factor refer to peer-support and reinforcement smoking could give, particularly in a growing adult. Political factors, such as oppression and the stress experienced because of being oppressed, direct people to smoking to alleviate stress. Meanwhile, the economic factors contradict the political factors in which people who belong to high society are often directed to smoking as a symbol of aconomic stability (Sutton, Baum & Johnston, 2004, p. 12). The Health Belief Model and the Ottawa Charter Smoking prevention is geared towards understanding people’s behavior and the Health Belief Model would help proponents of anti-smoking campaign to understand the factors why people engaged into smoking behaviors. In the Health Belief Model, people are made aware of the likelihood and severity of an illness, as well as the benefits and barriers derived from engaging into preventive behaviors (Skolnik, 2008, p. 103). Applied in smoking, the extent to which a person gets into smoking are influenced by fear of getting COPD/cancer, the perception of disease severity, the benefits of not engaging or quitting smoking, and the barriers that prevent a person from not engaging or quitting smoking. If the Health Belief Model is for understanding behavior, the Ottawa Charter is a framework design to plan health promotion actions and interventions. The Ottawa Charter is the first international conference on health promotion designed to achieve Health for All by the year 2000 and beyond (Carrin, Buse, Heggenhougen & Quah, 2009, p. 65). According to the Ottawa Charter, improvements in health can be achieved through determinants of health such as peace, education, food, shelter, income, stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice and equity (Lorraine & Hernandez, 2011, p. 172). The Ottawa Charter also reiterated that as health educators, it is essential that they advocate, enable, mediate, endorse and secure commitment to health promotion actions, and call for international action (Lorraine & Hernandez, 2011, p. 172). Health promotion actions are aimed towards building healthy public health policy, creating supportive environments, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, reorienting health services, and moving into the future (Lorraine & Herna ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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