The following will be a discussion about those benefits and risks. The most cited benefit of fluoridated water is the reduction of cavities, or caries. It is reported that fluoridated water can cause a 60% reduction in caries (Newbrun, 437). Caries are holes in the teeth or areas of deterioration. Not only can caries be terribly unsightly but cause severe pain and can lead to other health issues. Following this fact, the reason given in support of the addition to drinking water are high dental costs. A mouth full of caries can be quite expensive. Those who are low income will not even be able to afford the proper care necessary to treat the caries that they may develop and that cost will fall on the government. While many medical assistance programs developed for low-income people do not offer dental care, the horrible pain that a tooth ache can cause may require medical assistance. To avoid all of these issues the government continues to add fluoride to the public water supply. While there have been some concerns over adding fluoride to the public water, countries that do so are hesitant to discontinue the practice for fear that there will be an increase in caries and, thereby, an increase in dental care spending.