Instructions: Read the article posted on D2L titled “The Effect of Water Fluoridation and Social Inequalities of Dental Caries in 5-year Old Children.” After reading the article answer the following questions. (Be specific!)
III. The effect of fluoridation upon the…
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V. The effect of fluorida-tion and social class on caries experience in 5 year old Newcastle children in 1994 compared with results over the previous 18 years by Evans DJ, Rugg-Gunn AJ, Tabari ED, Butler T.
IX. Water fluoridation, tooth decay in 5 year olds, and social deprivation measured by the Jarman score; analysis of data from British dental surveys by Jones CM, Taylor GO, Whittle JG, Evans D, Trotter P.
Survey design was used for the study. The design collects and considers data in its naturally existing forms, without efforts for treatment and randomization. It is also suitable for descriptive measures that the study focused on (Riley, Lennon, & Ellwood 300, 301).
“Residency,” “other sources of fluoride,” and “ethnicity” are the discussed confounding factors. The factors are likely threats to validity through confusing classification of participants into the classes of the independent variable. The children could have migrated across regions of different social classes, there could be other sources of fluoride than water, and while ethnicity is not an accurate indicator of social inequality (Riley, Lennon, & Ellwood 303, 304).
The authors conclude that a significant relationship exists between water fluorination and dental carries and social inequality is a mediator. The relationship is stronger in low classes (Riley, Lennon, & Ellwood 304).
Riley, Jane, Lennon, Michael, & Ellwood, Roger. “The effects of water fluorination and social inequalities on dental caries in 5-year-old children.” International Journal of Epidemiology 28.2 (199). Print.
Jane C Riley, Michael A Lennon, and Roger P Ellwood. "The effect of water fluoridation and social inequalities on dental caries in 5-year-old children." International Journal of Epidemiology 1 1999. ,
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(“The Effect of Water Fluoridation and Social Inequalities of Dental Assignment”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/sociology/1652195-the-effect-of-water-fluoridation-and-social-inequalities-of-dental-caries-in-5-year-old-children
(The Effect of Water Fluoridation and Social Inequalities of Dental Assignment)
“The Effect of Water Fluoridation and Social Inequalities of Dental Assignment”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/sociology/1652195-the-effect-of-water-fluoridation-and-social-inequalities-of-dental-caries-in-5-year-old-children.
Working with children from birth to age 5 years Introduction Children are not aware of the dangers and possible harms attached to the materials and things around them. They find everything playful and try to observe things closely. Certain things should be kept out of their reach for their safety.
It might appear that improved access to dental care and the inclusion of fluoride in toothpaste, the public water supply, and professional dental products have reduced the issues concerning dental caries in children.
DMFT scores for participating students were collected and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11. This was compared with the baseline DMFT scores which were collected a year before to determine if there are any changes in the rate of dental caries over a period of one year.
The background of the increase in dental coverage provided by the private insurers lays at the increase in the number of cases for dental treatment, the rising cost of dental treatment fuelled by the increasing pipeline waiting for treatment in the public dental care facilities.
With this information and with the logic used by Nokes, I am convinced that fluoridation of water is beneficial to human health, particularly to the residents of Hamilton City. The outcome of the fluoridation of water is something that worked well and there was nothing that did not work well except perhaps for the usual negative claims against fluoride.
She is still passing some urine about 1500mls per day. Prescribed drugs are: - Amlodipine 10mg P.O daily, Calicichew, Omeprozole 20mg, Prednisolone 15mg IM q 12 hours , and Cyclizine.
M was receiving 2 hours Haemodialysis (HD); haemodialysis consists of the perfusion of blood and a physiologic salt solution on opposite sides of a semi permeable membrane.
This paper was written purely based on my understanding of research I have done, and what I have learnt thus far in class. I do not have any student on hand, hence I choose to work with my niece. Thank you.
1. Describe the student's special need using evidence to support your observation (e.g.