One of the major causative factors for the occurrence of pyelonephritis is Escherichia coli, which is the most common bacteria present in the small intestine. The infection usually begins from the genital tract and then moves through the urethra to the bladder and finally reaches the kidney via the ureters. In the case of a normal urinary tract the spread of the infection is prevented by the flow of the urine and closing of the ureters at the entrance of the bladder.
The normal microflora present in a healthy vagina includes Lactobacillus sp, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Candida albicans. Certain external factors such as puberty, wearing synthetic panties, unsafe sex and used of birth control pills, douching and use of other feminine- birth control pills can cause a rise in the number of these normal microflora which in turn could lead to urinary tract infections.
Sexually transmitted infections, which are common among teenagers and young adults, affects nearly 200 to 400 people worldwide. The prevalence of STD is more among people with multiple sex partners and certain specific populations such as homosexuals within the country. The US department of health services and the center for disease prevention has reported that nearly 65 million people have incurable STD and a recent survey revealed an increased occurrence of Chlamydia and syphilis among men and women. The occurrence of gonorrhea infection has, however, remained stable over the past years. The increased reporting of