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Motion sickness is a common problem experienced during travel - Essay Example

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You are the Medical Director for an aeromedical paediatric retrieval team staffed by critical care paramedics. Which, if any, anti-emetic would you choose, and why? Include basic pharmacology of the drug, dosages, indications, contraindications, advantages, disadvantages and potential side effects…
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Motion sickness is a common problem experienced during travel

Download file to see previous pages... These children become more vulnerable by the time they reach 10 to 12 years. Their motion sickness is mostly when they are riding a car, a train, or are travelling by air; they may also feel dizzy in amusement park rides. There are various preventive measures which can be used for children (Graudins, 2009). Pharmacological measures are also used when preventive measures fail. Pharmacological remedies may be needed due to the fact that persistent motion sickness can lead to drowsiness, apathy, and the feelings of impending doom (Graudins, 2009). Cortical areas may also be affected, this would explain the anticipatory nausea felt before travel. Hyoscine hydrobromide (scopolamine) is recommended for children as an anti-emetic. Based on a systematic review of controlled trials assessing hyoscine, there is support for the conclusion that it is a more effective medical option than placebo (Spinks, et.al., 2007). Hyoscine hydrobromide is also used to manage the side effects of clozapine, that of hypersalivation. Individuals taking clozapine are known to experience difficulty in swallowing, and as a result, saliva builds up in the mouth (Sadock, 2008). Hyoscine hydrobromide helps manage this by decreasing the amount of saliva produced (Graudins, 2009). This drug comes in 300 mcg tablets. ...
In relation to other medications, hyoscine has limited interactions with other drugs. It can however reduce the effect of domperidone and metoclopramide. If it is administered with benzodiazepine or alcohol, it can lead to sleepiness (NHS, 2012). The impact of hyoscine can be increased with the use of similar drugs with similar effects. Hyoscine is also a competitive inhibitor for the muscarinic receptors of acetylcholine. Various side effects have been seen in terms of its short duration of action, often limiting its usefulness, especially when administered orally or parenterally (NHS, 2012). Hence, a transdermal preparation has been established for this drug. Pharmacokinetic assessments discuss that this new means of administering hyoscine limits the absorption rate and the entry of the drug into the system, extending it beyond 72 hours and ensuring means of delivery similar to slow IV infusion. In some cases however, the response to hyoscine has been diverse (NHS, 2012). This may indicate pharmacokinetic differences between the patients. Controlled trials also support the fact that a single transdermal hyoscine patch is better than placebo or oral preparations in preventing motion sickness. Hyoscine, specifically scopolamine controls muscarinic receptors for acetylcholine and performs functions as a nonselective muscarinic antagonist, presenting peripheral antimuscarinic properties as well as central sedative, and antiemetic effects (Ferrell and Coyle, 2010). The parasympathetic scopolamine is similar to atropine and is often applied in issues calling for inihibited parasympathetic activity; it impacts on the eye, the gastrointestinal tract, the heart, and the salivary secretion glands (Zagaria, 2012). Common side effects from the drug mostly refer to ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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