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Cytotechnology in Saudi VS Cytotechnology in the U.S - Research Paper Example

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Cytotechnology Cytotechnology is the branch of science that is involved with studying cells. Cytotechnologists interpret Pap smears microscopically to see if they are normal or not. They make decisions about diseases by analyzing cellular patterns and small changes in the different parts of cells, especially the nucleus and the cytoplasm while correlating it to the patient’s history…
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Cytotechnology in Saudi VS Cytotechnology in the U.S

Download file to see previous pages... Cytotechnologists work with samples from many parts of the body, such as lungs, bladders, body cavities, nervous system, GI tract, liver, lymph nodes, thyroid, salivary glands, breasts, and others to create preliminary interpretations of specimen. They work together with pathologists to determine what disease is afflicting the patient and whether this disease is benign, infectious, precancerous, or other malignancies. By providing these diagnoses quickly and efficiently, they can save many lives by pointing health care staff towards the right path to treatment of the patient as quickly as possible (“Profession of Cytotechnology; Hatt; “Cytotechnology” CAAHEP; “The Cytotechnologist”). Cytotechnology in the US History of Cytotechnology The basis for cytotechnology can be found as early as the 1800s. It started when cancer cells were reportedly found in various kinds of body cells. Even though people found these cancer cells, it was such a new concept to them that they did not make any effort to use cytology in a systematic approach to diagnose cancer during the time. In the 1900s, Dr. George Papanicolaou contributed greatly to the field with his research on cellular changes seen in vaginal smear of guinea pigs at different periods of the menstrual cycle, which he then applied to humans. As his research progressed, he was able to find cervical cancer cells from some of his smears and recognized them for what they were. From this, he made one of the most important advances in the field of cancer detection by applying wet fixation and developing what is now called the Papanicolaou staining method, or the Pap smear. This method uses a microscope to view the details of the nuclei of cells, which are important determiners in the diagnosis of cervical cancer (Naik and Zaleski). Dr. Papanicolaou’s collection of vaginal smears from women and his findings were published in his paper entitled New Cancer Diagnosis. This was presented at the Third Race Betterment Conference in Battle Creed, MI, in 1928. He concluded his paper by saying: “We have a better understanding of the situation in a cancer case, and we may have some help in analyzing the cancer problems in the future.” In that same year, Dr. Aurel Babes, a Romanian pathologist, also published a similar article entitled Diagnostic du cancer du col uterin par les frottis (The diagnosis of cancer of the uterine cervix from smears) in La Presse Medicale in April of that year. He gained little recognition from his research, and it never advanced farther than that. Dr. Papanicolaou initially found little recognition from the medical community during the first decade since his discovery until Dr. Joseph C. Hinsey, the dean of Cornell Medical College at the time, told him to try again. In 1939, Dr. Papanicolaou, with the help of gynaecologist Dr. Herbert Traut, reevaluated the efficacy of the vaginal smear as a diagnostic tool and procedure for detecting cervical cancer. They published Diagnostic Value of Vaginal Smears in Carcinoma of the Uterus in 1941 in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. They also created the monograph Diagnosis of Uterine Cancer by the Vaginal Smear in 1943 (Naik and Zaleski). These groundbreaking studies paved the way to better detection methods of cervical cancer and revealed that there were a large number of patients with undetected cancer. They proved that one can detect ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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