Alternate Hormonal Treatment Approaches to Metastasis Prostrate Cancer Introduction: The fundamental unit of life is cell. The human body is made up of numerous cells and these cells carry out various functions all throughout the body. Generally growth occurs in the body when the cells divide to form new cells in an orderly way…
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They are in the form of mass of tissue called as the growth of tumor. And the group of many related diseases is termed as Cancer. The tumors can be benign or malignant. Mostly the benign tumors are not cancerous. The benign tumors can be easily removed from the body and their growths are restricted and they never come back and hence it is considered to cause less or no harm to the body. On the other hand malignant tumors are cancerous. And the cells in these tumors are generally abnormal. These abnormal cells grow without any control or order and they never get destructed or they never die. Ultimately they invade the near by tissues or organs causing severe damages. These abnormal cancer cells can always break from the malignant tumors and they can enter the blood stream and the lymphatic nodes. This is the way the cancer cells spreads from the place of origin (Primary) or the epicenter to the form new sites (secondary) tumors in other parts of the body. Thus the process of cancer spreading all throughout the body is called as Metastasis or the advanced stage of cancer which is lethal. While there are tremendous advances in the field of cancer research and treatment, the increase in the mortality rate is still a menace in the medical field. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S and nearly 90 percentage of the cancer deaths are due to metastasis. (Khusial 2008). This paper will deal with the alternate hormonal treatments for the metastasis prostate cancer. Thus prostate is the gland in a man’s reproductive system. It secretes the seminal fluid and nourishes the sperm. “The prostate is about the size of the walnut. It is located below the urinary bladder and in the front of the rectum.”(Nixon and Gomez 2004). For the normal functioning of the prostate the male hormones called as androgens are needed. The male sex characteristics are mainly determined by the male hormones which includes testosterone produced by the testicles. Thus if cancer cells attacks prostate it is termed as the prostate cancer. As discussed the prostate cancer can be of two major types namely the benign Prostrate Hyperplasia which is the abnormal growth of the benign prostate cells, this can be removed and it causes less or nor harm to the human body. On the other hand the malignant tumor in prostate are lethal where the cancer cells spread to the adjacent tissues and other parts of the body especially the lymph nodes, blood stream, bladder, rectum etc. Thus the abnormal cancer cells spreading rapidly causing lethal effect to the other organs is called as the stage of metastasis. “Prostrate cancer develops as a result of a series of faults occurring in the genes that control cell growth in the prostate.” (Chinegwundoh 2011). These faults can be inherited from one generation to the other or can be developed as a result of damage of the DNA. The damage to the Deoxy Ribo Nucleic can be in turn caused by the erratic food habits, cancer-inducing chemicals and radiations. The other risk factor for the occurrence of the prostate cancer encompasses the following elements such as increased age, genetic inheritance and family history of breast cancer, ethnicity, and mainly personal hygiene and dietary components. “In 2007 ,approximately 219,000 new cases of PC were diagnosed.”(Shahani, Braga-Basaria, and Basaria 2008). Prostrate Cancer Staging: “Staging is a system used to describe the size, aggressiveness, and spread of a cancer.”
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The appropriate therapejutic management of cancer has been evasive in spite of the expansive volume of research. The high rates of new incidence of cases of cancer have heightened the value of research and the necessity for reaching an effective management of this problem.
The target series of compounds was produced through reductive amination between four amines and a dialdehyde produced from α-D-glucopyranose. The amines that were used in the project are: butyl amine, benzyl amine, L-phenylalanine and Tyrosine-OMe.
Breast cancer can be identified as a health issue commonly faced by women. However, it can be mentioned that the diagnosis and the treatment of breast cancer had been a part of medical culture since ancient ages which can be dated back to the pyramid age during 3000-2500 BC (Donegan, 2005).
Application of monoclonal antibodies for target approach of cancer therapy because of hybridoma technology which has contributed to the production of monoclonal antibodies. Strategies for this therapeutic application are destruction of cancer cells that are directed by immune reaction, interference of the therapy with the growth and differentiation of cancer cells, transport of anti-cancer agents to the cancer cells based on antigen epitopes, anti-idiotype vaccination and finally, development of humanised mouse monoclonal antibodies through genetic engineering.
Most importantly, the study stresses the progression of cancer, by means of metastasis. After which, the research elaborated the principle of ion channels and its function within the body. It then associates the role that ion channels contribute to the development of cancer cells within the body, and what particular ion channels can be exploited to hinder the growth and proliferation of mutated genes.
It is surrounds the urethra. Urethra is the tube in the body of men that allows urine to be passed out of the body. Prostate cancer is more common in men of old ages and rare in men below 40 years of age (Prostate Cancer). Etiology: Studies reveal that African-American men are at more risk of developing prostate cancer who have also been found to be at risks of developing cancer at their different ages.
There are about 48,000 women who fall prey to this disease in the country each year (Breast Cancer (Female), 2012). Further, about half of the affected population are women over the age of 50. On the other hand, the disease also affects younger women. Breast cancer in men is less common at a rate of one in every 100,000 males (Breast Cancer in Men, 2011).
Hence, causing numerous disease-related distress cases both among the ailing and close people whom spent their entire time acting as caregivers (Boman, Bjork & Lindahl, 2003). Mainly, caregivers in this case encompass family members and other close people who normally intervene with the intention of aiding the affected.
orporate Level Strategy and its Advantages 12 2.3 Apple Corporate Strategy 13 2.4 Sony Corporate Strategy 14 2.5 Theoretical Review: Customer Service 15 2.6 Customer Service Strategy of Sony 16 2.7 Customer Service Strategy of Apple 17 2.8 Customer Service Strategy in Creating Customer Base 18 2.9 Corporate and Customer Service Strategy in Sustainability 19 CHAPTER III – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 19 3.1 Research Philosophy 19 3.2 Research Design 20 3.3 Research Approaches 21 3.4 Research Methods 23 3.5 Research Strategies 23 CHAPTER IV – DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND DATA ANALYSIS 24 4.1 Data Collection Method 24 4.2 Sampling Method 24 4.3 Data Analysis 25 4.4 Findings and Analysis 25 CHAPTER V
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