Introduction This literature review will study about the recent development of the treatment for atrial fibrillation. This will include the current mortality rate in America and how these advancements can alleviate the death rate of humans suffering with this disease…
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We will also incorporate certain drug prescription in anticoagulants and anti-arrhythmic drugs that are available in the market. These include its affectivity and rate of recovery. Background of the study 1. Nature of Atrial fibrillation Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the types of cardiac arrhythmia wherein the normal electrical impulses were plagued by incompetent electrical impulses that lead to abnormal conduction of impulses in the sinoatrial node. As to its consequences, it leads irregular conduction of impulses to the ventricle that is responsible for heartbeat. Currently, this is the most common arrhythmia in U.S. affecting more than 2.2 million Americans with higher tendency in the elderly (American Hearts association, 2004). As researched by Hart, R.G., et al 2007, 1% of the affected citizen is 60 years old and increase by twofold as it reaches the age 70. The heart pumps the blood to the rest of the body. As the heart beats two upper chamber of the atrium contract, followed by the two ventricles. The electrical impulse begins in the sinoatrial node, located in the right atrium. This adjusts the rate of impulses depending on the work of the body. When the sinoatrial node directs an electrical impulse, it spreads downwards through the right and left atria. As they receive the signal, they contract as it forces the blood inside the ventricle (Cleaveland Clinic, 2012). During the atrial fibrillation, electrical signals come from several areas thus forming a wham to the entire heart. This would destroy the regular rhythm of the heart affecting further the rate and the blood flow. Symptoms in most cases are chest pains or angina, rapid and irregular heartbeat with palpitations, dizziness, lightheadedness, anxiety, reduced exercise capacity, symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as weight loss and diarrhea, and symptoms of lung cancer are also situated therein (Mathew, J.P., 2004). However, one-third of the patients show no obvious symptoms therefore becoming unaware of the abnormal heartbeat thus having post detection (Schmidt, C., 2011, Fuster, V., 2006). Management to this treatment is focusing in three points: thromboembolism or the anti-coagulation therapy, re-establishing and maintaining sinus rhythm and controlling ventricular rate with atrioventricular node blocking agents. These three hold a series of discussions and effectivity which will be discussed later. Options for management of the disease include anti-coagulants, anti-arrhythmic drugs and cardiac ablation (Collier, J., 2006). Collectively, the treatment aims to prevent the clotting of the blood thus reducing the risk of stroke; control how often the ventricle contracts that will result a normal circulation and proper distribution of oxygen in the body; return the normal relationship of atria and ventricle making them work together normally; and treat any underlying disorder that may cause or raise the risk of atrial fibrillation for example, hyperthyroidism. Rate of the heart is attained with medications that reduce the blockage at the level atrioventricular node. This would effectively decrease the number of impulses that conduct into the ventricles. Rhythm on the other hand focuses in the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) that is mainly used for early detected atrial fibrillation where it is believed that in this time range the heart is not behaving at its
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(“Analysis of Current Treatment Options in Atrial Fibrillation Thesis”, n.d.)
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(Analysis of Current Treatment Options in Atrial Fibrillation Thesis)
“Analysis of Current Treatment Options in Atrial Fibrillation Thesis”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/health-sciences-medicine/1396944-analysis-of-current-treatment-options-in-atrial.
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