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Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis - Essay Example

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The focus in this paper is on multiple sclerosis (MS), a degenerative disease involving the central nervous system of the human body. The cause of multiple sclerosis is still not clear. The significant heterogeneity of MS and the unpredictable course of the disease are key factors that make the treatment of MS challenging…
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Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

Download file to see previous pages... This paper illustrates that Borazanci define multiple sclerosis (MS) as “an inflammatory demyelinating and degenerative disease of the human central nervous system (CNS)”. In the U.S.A about 500,000 individuals are affected by this disease, which targets young individuals, and is a significant reason for neurological deficits among the young adult population of the nation. In spite of several and continuous efforts to remove the enigma in the etiology of MS, its cause remains elusive, and so too a cure for the disease. Till about two decades back no MS specific treatments were available, but currently several MS specific treatments are available. Though the exact cause of MS is still clouded in mystery, its pathogenesis is linked to an abnormal immune response to CNS antigens, break down of the blood-brain barrier, and transendothelial migration from the peripheral circulation to the CNS by activated leukocytes, chemokines, and cytokines. In the active form of the disease apparently there is continuing inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes occurring in the environment of the CNS. The trigger for the preliminary attack of MS still remains to be uncovered, but it is hypothesized that genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of the disease. Experimental studies on mice have led to the surmise that autoreactive T cells are activated in the peripheral immune system against the CNS antigens like myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein, and then cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the CNS....
till clouded in mystery, its pathogenesis is linked to an abnormal immune response to CNS antigens, break down of the blood-brain barrier, and transendothelial migration from the peripheral circulation to the CNS by activated leukocytes, chemokines, and cytokines. In the active form of the disease apparently there is continuing inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes occurring in the environment of the CNS. The trigger for the preliminary attack of MS still remains to be uncovered, but it is hypothesized that genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of the disease (Borazanci et al, 2009). Experimental studies on mice have led to the surmise that autoreactive T cells are activated in the peripheral immune system against the CNS antigens like myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein, and then cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the CNS. It is also presumed that prior to this disruption of the blood-brain barrier and the migration of the T-cells, disintegration of the occluding and VE-cadherin molecules of the cerebral endothelial cells occurs. Monocytes and T-lymphocytes also migrate into the CNS. T-Lymphocytes are responsible for the inflammatory response in MS. Experimental studies in mice have also linked cytokines with the pathogenesis of MS and the inflammatory response. In addition, Th1 cytokines and cytotoxic CD8 T cells are believed to promote macrophagial activity, which leads to the loss of the oligodendrocyte/myelin complex observed in MS. The final participants believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of MS are the B cells. In the CNS the B cells are believed to be activated by a T-cell-dependent-mechanism to generate antibodies against myelin antigens (Borazanci et al, 2009). There is growing acceptance to MS not being ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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