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300 – 350 million cases are found to be caused by malaria with a mortality rate of 2-3 million deaths per year. (World Health Organization 2010). Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and is transmitted by the anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria is caused by four species of protozoan parasites. Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P.ovale and P.Malariae. P.vivax is the most wide spread form of malaria infection in the world. (Gbotosho et al. 2011). P.falciparum causes the most severe form of the Malaria and is responsible for most deaths and serious morbidity. It enters the blood cells at the gametocyte stage from the mosquitoes gut to the blood of the human during a blood meal. Malaria constitutes about 10% of the disease burden in Africa. Malaria is both a social and behavioral problem and that has to taken into account while perceiving and treating the disease. On the same lines, AIDS could also be considered as a social and behavioral problem or diseases, which is having major impacts throughout the world, particularly in Third World Countries. Human Deficiency Virus (HIV) infection causes the Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the people who were exposed to this virus die due to the co-infection with opportunistic pathogens. There are two types of HIV virus; HIV type -1 and HIV type – 2. HIV-1 is found throughout the world. (Gunn and Pitt, 2012). ...
The areas with high rates of malaria also have the burden of HIV co-infection. The HIV-1 virus infection is promoted by the infected CD4+ cells delivered by the pathogens. HIV positive people present in the Malaria endemic regions are more vulnerable to Malaria. The HIV-1 infection increases the risk for malaria. The presence of malarial parasites in the blood of the HIV positive individuals is the starting point of co-infection of malaria with HIV. (Hochman and Kim 2009). Similarly plasma HIV viral load in the acute malaria infected individuals is high during the first eight weeks of infection. Thus, in a way “HIV fuels Malaria and Malaria fuels HIV”. (Singer 2009). This connection or coinfection has been focused in various studies conducted throughout the world, particularly in the Third World Countries. These studies are featured in number of journal articles. The article titled, HIV-malaria coinfection: effects of malaria on the prevalence of HIV in East sub-Sahara Africa written by Diago F. Cuadros, Adam J. Branscum and Phillip H Crowley, and featured in the International Journal of Epidemiology in 2011 focuses on this coinfection. So, this paper will do a critical review of that published epidemiological article, with the aid of other current journals, by first critically evaluating the evidence used in developing and implementing public health measures, then by critically discussing and distinguishing between research methodologies and methods used in health and public health research, then will evaluate and critically comment on the impact of public health policies in relation to the study and finally will prepare a research protocol Malaria prevalence in Pregnancy: a major public health issue
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