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Empirical Evidence For The Proposal That the Prevalence and Expression Of, and Risk Factors For, Major Depressive Disorder Are Different For Women, Compared To Men - Literature review Example

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This paper "Empirical Evidence For The Proposal That the Prevalence and Expression Of, and Risk Factors For, Major Depressive Disorder Are Different For Women, Compared To Men" presents a critical review of the literature relating to gender differences in major depressive disorder.  …
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Empirical Evidence For The Proposal That the Prevalence and Expression Of, and Risk Factors For, Major Depressive Disorder Are Different For Women, Compared To Men
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Download file to see previous pages Frank, Carpenter, and Kupfer published an article in the American Journal of Psychiatry in 1988, entitled, “Sex Differences in Recurrent Depression: Are There Any That Are Significant?” The title of this article is telling. The authors phrased the title as a question. They were investigating whether or not sex differences in recurrent depression were significant. They were not discussing the differences in risk factors or the differences in the duration of depressive episodes, they were considering whether any differences were significant. This implies that gender differences in depression were a subject suitable for investigation, that gender differences in depression did, in fact, exist in a significant manner. (Frank, Carpenter and Kupfer, 1988)
Their research involved a sample of 180 men and women recruited through a variety of sources including self-referral, medical referral and in response to a public information campaign. They subjected their subjects to a battery of tests at an initial screening. They were tested again at the completion of a period of 16 weeks of acute treatment. They concluded that some tests indicated a significantly higher score for women on some tests, such as self-reporting, yet no significant differences on other tests such as the traditional 17-item Hamilton scale. The majority of the study group were women.
Overall, they concluded that men and women demonstrated gender differences in depression at various stages throughout the treatment process but at the end of the treatment process they reported “significant sex differences on the depression factor had disappeared”, “there was no difference between sexes in the likelihood of achieving recovery by the end of 16 weeks” and “there was no significant difference in the number of treatment terminators in each group [men and women].”This observation is quoted verbatim because of its significance.   ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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