Edward Jenner was the First ever to give Inoculation to People/ Invent the vaccine (Subject Name) Introduction The history of mankind has been ravaged by infectious diseases that claimed the innocent lives of many people…
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Moreover, it left thousands more permanently paralyzed as a stark reminder of its uncontrollable wrath. Furthermore, in 1918, the influenza epidemic can only be compared to a global holocaust as it claimed the lives of over 25 million people.1 However, none of this compared to the plague that decimated almost half of the total population of Europe during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.2 Fast forward into the eighteenth century, small pox emerged as the number one threat to human life globally. Statistical data by Kendall in England estimate that almost 45,000 lives were lost yearly in England alone.3 This disease was no respecter of persons as it even claimed the life of Benjamin Franklin’s son following a 1750’s outbreak in America.4 The never ending misery caused by these infectious diseases was ultimately put to an end by one of the greatest inventions pertaining to human health. This was the development of the vaccine. This one invention would not only prove as a measure in eradication of infectious disease such as small pox and polio, but also offer the much needed prevention against future infections. Behind the marvel innovation of vaccines were prominent people such as Edward Jenner, Louis Pasteur, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, John Fewster, Benjamin Jesty among many more. 5However, among the few mentioned innovators, Edward Jenner was labeled in history annals as the father of immunology or inventor of vaccination. This global recognition was due to his development of the small pox vaccine and his published works on the same. However, historical and contemporary debates have attempted to dispute the title coveted to Edward Jenner. The controversy of the issue revolved around past historical evidence from contemporaries such as Lady Mary Wortley Monatagu, Benjamin Jesty and John Fewster.6 To this effect, the critics have advanced various theories aimed at discrediting Edward Jenner as the inventor of the vaccine. Foremost, they claimed that earlier development of the vaccine existed.7 Secondly, that Jenner simply developed an attenuated smallpox virus vaccine and used a safe type of smallpox inoculation.8 Other critics claimed that there were pioneer individuals who did a majority of the research that led to development of the vaccine.9 To this end, the critics have attempted to cast aspersion on Edward Jenner as the first inventor and administrator of the first vaccine.10 However, an overall majority of historical pundits contend that Edward Jenner was indeed the inventor of the vaccine and the first person to give an inoculation. Consequently, the subsequent sections will elaborately delve into the history of Edward Jenner, background information on the small pox and some of the historical personalities that made notable contributions. It is the advance by some of the past innovators that critics have sought to discredit Jenner.. Furthermore, Jenner’s advancement in developing a vaccine will be elaborated. To this end, a comprehensive discussion defending Edward Jenner as the inventor of the vaccine in relation to other contributors will suffice. Edward Jenner On May 17, 1749, Edward Jenner was conceived in Berkley, Gloucestshire. He was the son of the vicar of Berkley, Rev. Stephen Jenner.11 However, at the tender age of 5 years, he was orphaned and moved in with his elder brother. It was in his early years at school that Jenner acquired an innate interest in nature and sciences. Consequently, at the age of 14, Jenner was apprenticed to a
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Had it been concretely established that hypnosis has the capacity to bring about extraordinary improvement in one’s memory skills, today’s schools and colleges would have as many hypnotists as teachers, if not more. Not only that, training in hypnosis would have been made mandatory for students and teachers.
(Kimble et al. 1991) Tolman was born in Newton, Massachusetts in 1886. He stayed there when he grew up and was educated in public schools of Newton. He lived in a family of upper middle class socioeconomic status and had a father who was president of a manufacturing company.
Hence all efforts must be channeled to find a robust vaccine for preventing it. Hence, research in this area is going at an intense pace in recent years. But unfortunately, there are no foolproof vaccines that have been formulated yet. A vaccine by name RTS S/AS01, which was put to trial during 2009, is specifically addressed to vulnerable children in the Third World.
Airborne transmission is believed to be possible though the well known form is through the droplets. There are several vaccines that have been manufactured to deal with such infections. Influenza vaccines are safe effective. On analysis, the facts indicate that there are risk groups where routine and annual immunization has to be regular.
There is no evidence to assess the risk of vaccination provided to protect influenza during pregnancy. Thimerosal, mercury containing the preservative which is present in most inactivated influenza vaccination is found to influence the appropriate neural development and may result in autism or teratogenic anomalies, mutagenicity and even fetal death.
Born from a middle class family, Edward Estlin Cumming was born in the town of Massachusetts on October 14, 1894. He was named after his father although he was called by his middle name by the family. His father was a successful man as once he was a professor of Sociology and political science at the Harvard University before proceeding to become a renowned minister of a church located in Boston.
The interruption of person-to-person transmission of poliomyelitis by vaccination is the primary goal of global polio vaccination. Polio vaccine has eliminated polio from most countries around the world and reduced the worldwide incidence from approximately three and fifty thousand in 1988 to two hundred and twenty-three cases in 2012.
The ensuing years reported a number of outbreaks in the Americas and Europe. 2 The disease remained an enigma though Cuban Carlos Finlay suggested the mosquito Culex cubensis which is now called Aedes aegypti to be responsible for the spread of the disease.
In this work, there is an analysis of the Philosophical Belief Bill in California. The author claims that states of California and Vermont passed legislations that will remove the philosophical exemptions with effect from July 2016. Various laws shield minority groups' rights across the nation.
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