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Biomedical/Biopsychosocial Model - Essay Example

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Biomedical/Biopsychosocial Model The Bio-medical and Biopsychosocial Model and McKeown/Hyperkinesis Theory The biopsychosocial model of illness is an extension of the earlier biomedical model. It is a model that utilizes a new approach to the relationship between social, psychological, and biological factors in illness and health…
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Biomedical/Biopsychosocial Model

Download file to see previous pages... The model distinguishes two sides and they include somatopsychic and psychosomatic relationships. Psychosomatic relationships entail individual factors (such as behavioral tendencies, personality, and temperament), situational factors, psychosocial risk factors of illness; these factors act through the inception of psychological stress. Somatopsychic relationships include psychosocial outcomes of illness and they entail illness behavior. Most of the times, the psychosocial outcomes of illness are not favorable and lead to negative emotions (Janowski 2009, p11). Hyperkinesis is a behavior disorder and it is estimated that it affects 3 to 10% of the elementary school children or population. Hyperkinesis is also referred to as childhood hyperkinetic disorder, hyperactive syndrome, and minimal brain dysfunction. The disorder is characterized by hyperactivity (excessive motor activity), restlessness, very short attention duration (the child flutters from one activity to the other), fidgetiness, clumsiness, alternating mood swings, and aggressive-like behavior (Conrad 2006, p9). There are two factors relevant to hyperkinesis and they include social factors and clinical factors. Clinical factors include events that are closely related with the diagnosis and management or treatment of hyperkinesis. Social factors include factors that are not closely related with hyperkinesis but are important (Conrad 2006, p10). Social factors that affect hyperkinesis are divided into three categories; (a) government action, (b) pharmaceutical revolution, and (c) medical profession trends (Conrad 2006, p12). According to McKeown, social factors such as income level, living environment, and class manipulate health and that the medical profession is supposed to address these issues by moving away from the biological paradigms (Colgrove 2002, p725). McKeown stated the major contributors of mortality decline could not be attributed to medical treatments since majority of these treatments were introduced after the trend of decline in mortality had begun. Public health advances also did not play a big role either. Improvements in the social and economic conditions (such as improved diet) lead to the decline in mortality (Colgrove 2002, p726). From both models, illness and health result from social, psychological, and biological factors. These factors interact within the social context of the human existence and activity. Hyperkinesis is a behavioral disorder that affects children and it leads to hyperactivity. The disorder can be associated with the models since the psychosomatic entail individual factors. These individual factors comprise of behavioral tendencies, personality, and temperament; hyperkinesis is a behavioral tendency. McKeown asserts that social factors have a lot of influence on health and the decline in mortality is attributed to the improvements in social and economic conditions. References Colgrove, J. (2002) The McKeown thesis: A historical controversy and its enduring influence. American Journal of Public Health 92(5), pp725-729. Conrad, P. (2006) Identifying hyperactive children: The medicalization of deviant behavior, Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. Janowski, K. (2009) Biopsychosocial aspects of health and disease vol. 1, Lublin, Poland: CPPP Scientific Press. Health and Illness Social Process of Becoming Ill Health and sickness are not products of nature but products of culture. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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