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Floods - Research Paper Example

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From Delong et al, (2001), the research presented in the article “Responses of consumers and food resources to a high magnitude, unpredicted flood in the upper Mississippi River basin” focuses on the response of consumers and food resources to a high magnitude, unpredicted…
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From Delong et al, (2001), the research presented in the article “Responses of consumers and food resources to a high magnitude, unpredicted flood in the upper Mississippi River basin” focuses on the response of consumers and food resources to a high magnitude, unpredicted flood in the upper Mississippi River basin. The main point of this research for this peer review states that disturbance resulting from unpredicted flood events within the area of research are likely to result in the alteration of the trophic dynamics of the river floodplain systems by creating shifts in the composition of the organic matter that is available for consumers (Delong et al, 2001). This implies that there is the likelihood of the upper Mississippi River basin experience changes in its eco systems depending on the responses of consumers and food resources to a high magnitude, unpredicted flood.
The evidence for this research was based on Laboratory experiments. In order to determine the authenticity of the main hypothesis of this research work, samples were collected from the upper Mississippi River near the city of Louisiana Missouri (Delong et al, 2001). This area was used to act as a representative of the river flood plain features of the upper part of Mississippi River and it is characterized by a broad channel with a number of side channels and backwaters. Samples representing the potential nutrient sources and consumers were collected from all the three rivers in October 1993 and July 1994 for analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (Delong et al, 2001). Statistical analysis was done on the collected samples and using pair wise comparison. The results indicated there were few inter-annuals differences for each rivers n regard to the sources of the organic matter and the consumers.
The main implication of this research is that the findings of past studies relate in a big way to the large-magnitude flood events in the upper Mississippi River system, therefore this strengthens the conclusion that the flood served to enhance rather than change the trophic structure within these river-floodplain ecosystems. The results obtained from this research imply that the consumers continued to rely on the sources of organic matter that would be used in the absence of the unpredicted 1993 flood (Delong et al, 2001). It is proposed that the trophic structure did not change in response to flooding in the Missouri Rivers because both rivers exhibited the same trends observed in the Ohio River.
From the article “Pesticide and PCB residues in the upper Snake River ecosystem, Southeastern Idaho, following the collapse of the Teton Dam 1976” by Perry, J. A. (1979), the main point is that following the collapse of the Teton Dam in 1976, the result has been a rise been a rise in the levels of pesticides and PCB recorded in the upper Snake River ecosystem Southeastern Idaho (Perry, J. A., 1979). It is important to point out that the upper Snake River area is primarily an agricultural area. Different types of pesticides are used and after the flooding event, there was great destruction of different farm facilities. This research paper aims to address the results of a onetime effort to perform sampling in order to determine the magnitude of the chemical contamination.
The evidence for this research was collected through laboratory experiments where all the samples were collected along the river in September and October 1976 from 13 stations. Sediments were collected from the top of 3-4 cm of soil at each of the 13 sites. About 300 samples of fishes, waterfowls and planktons and sediments were collected. The residues of the pesticides were measured in terms of the wet weight. Plankton and drift were collected with 13 cm diameter plankton net (Perry, J. A., 1979). Fishes and birds were collected by the Idaho Department of fish and Game.
The main implications of this research are that the undeveloped areas showed higher levels of contaminants than did the other industrialized areas. The Pre-flood data on a whole fish basis only showed that no any human health hazard due to pesticide levels exists in this portion of the Snake River. The rocky mountain whitefish had as high as 2650 µg/kg total DDT and 1400 µg/kg PCBs (Perry, J. A., 1979). These levels of PCB and DDT were high approaching the optimal level of 2,000 µg/kg FDA which is the proposed tolerance level but these results were below the 5,000 µg/kg present tolerance. The levels of dieldrin were low and traces of organophosphates were undetectable.
Combining the main points of the two peer reviews, we can come up with a single statement and state that The resulting disturbance from unpredicted flood events alters the trophic dynamics of the river floodplain systems and creates shifts in the composition of the organic matter that is available for consumers yet following the collapse of the Teton Dam in 1976, there has been a rise in the levels of pesticides and PCB recorded in the upper Snake River ecosystem.
RESEARCH PAPER INITIAL INFORMATION FORM
Fall, 2014
1. List your two peer-reviewed references. Use the following format:
Author last name, first initial. Year of publication. Title of article. Journal
name in italic Volume #: first page-last page.
Delong, M.D., Thorp, J.H., Greenwood, K.S., Miller, M.C. 2001. Responses of consumers and food resources to a high magnitude, unpredicted flood in the upper Mississippi River basin. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management 17: 217-234.
Perry, J. A. 1979. Pesticide and PCB residues in the upper Snake River ecosystem, Southeastern Idaho, following the collapse of the Teton Dam 1976. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 8: 139-159.
2. State the main point of your first reference.
Disturbance resulting from unpredicted flood events normally alters the trophic dynamics of the river floodplain systems by creating shifts in the composition of the organic matter that is available for consumers.
3. State the main point of your second reference.
Following the collapse of the Teton Dam in 1976, there has been a rise in the levels of pesticides and PCB recorded in the upper Snake River ecosystem Southeastern Idaho.
4. What TYPE of evidence is provided to support the main point of the first reference. Choose one or more of the following:
Laboratory experiment(s)
Samples were collected for the upper Mississippi River near the city of Louisiana Missouri. This area was used to act as a representative of the river flood plain features of the upper part of Mississippi River and it is characterized by a broad channel with a number of side channels and backwaters. Samples representing the potential nutrient sources and consumers were collected from all the three rivers in October 1993 and July 1994 for analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes.

5. What TYPE of evidence is provided to support the main point of the first reference. Choose one or more of the following:
Laboratory experiment(s)
All the samples were collected along the river in September and October 1976 from 13 stations. Sediments were collected from the top of 3-4 cm of soil at each of the 13 sites. Plankton and drift were collected with 13 cm diameter plankton net.
6. What are the implications of the main point of the first reference? Implications will usually be stated under summary or conclusions in peer-reviewed papers.
“The findings of past studies relating to large-magnitude flood events in the upper Mississippi River system, therefore, strengthen the conclusion that the flood served to enhance rather than change the trophic structure within these river-floodplain ecosystems.”

7. What are the implications of the main point of the second reference? Implications will usually be stated under summary or conclusions in peer-reviewed papers.
An undeveloped area showed higher levels of contaminants than did an industrialized.
Pre-flood data on a whole fish basis shows that no any human health hazard due to pesticide levels exists in this portion of the Snake River.
8. Combine or contrast the two references’ main points to form your own main point. Write your main point here:
The resulting disturbance from unpredicted flood events alters the trophic dynamics of the river floodplain systems and creates shifts in the composition of the organic matter that is available for consumers yet following the collapse of the Teton Dam in 1976, there has been a rise in the levels of pesticides and PCB recorded in the upper Snake River ecosystem Read More
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