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Climate plays a significant role in mass wasting since the changes in climate leads to weakening of the surface materials due to alteration of temperature. The high and low temperature alterations especially in the deserts often weaken the subsurface rendering soil weak to be…
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GEOL 1022: Assignment #3 (Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravity) Winter Term, Questions and Answers1 The most widespreadand costly of all mass wasting processes is: (2)
a. Slump
b. creep
c. mudflows (Answer)
d. rockfalls
e. solifluction
2. Which of the following factors can actually enhance slope stability? (2)
a. Increasing the slope angle
b. Vegetation (Answer)
c. Overloading
d. Rock dipping in the same direction as the slope
e. None of the answers is correct.
3. Shear strength includes:(2) is the amount of internal cohesion
a. The strength and cohesion of materials
b. the amount of internal cohesion (Answer)
c. gravity
d. all of these
e. Answers a and b.
4. Movement of material along a surface or surfaces of failure is: (2)
a. slide
b. fall
c. earthflow
d. debris flow (Answer)
e. none
5. A type of mass wasting common in mountainous regions in which talus accumulates: (2)
a. Creep
b. solifluction
c. rockfalls (Answer)
d. debris flow
e. mudflow
6. What roles do climate and weathering play in mass wasting? (10)
Climate plays a significant role in mass wasting since the changes in climate leads to weakening of the surface materials due to alteration of temperature. The high and low temperature alterations especially in the deserts often weaken the subsurface rendering soil weak to be moved by other agent of mass wasting. Additionally, heavy rains move the material especial soil and debris thereby facilitating mass wasting. On the other hand, weathering also render the soil and rocks weak thereby making other agents of mass wasting including wind, man, and rain easy time to move such materials thereby leading to massive mass wasting.
7. How does water affect mass wasting processes? (10)
Yes water affects mass wasting processes. Water reduces adhesive forces been the soil among other debris materials thereby facilitating mass wasting. Additionally, water often has force large enough to move material including large debris down the stream.
8. Define ‘angle of repose’ and describe its significance in mass wasting. (10)
The downward movement of loose and unconsolidated materials including soil and sediment is often due to force of gravity. At the point where the soil among other consolidated materials is not moving down the hill, such material are held in place with frictional force. The point at which the gravitational and frictional force balances is referred to angle of repose. This is the maximum angle that a friction force can hold loose material on the surface of the earth not to move downhill. Therefore, angles greater than angle of repose usually lead to mass wasting and at this point the force of gravity is slightly greater than frictional force holding the same materials.
9. Why is creep so prevalent? Why does it do so much damage? (10)
Soil creeping is a long term mass wasting process and it combine the movement of small and rocky materials in undirected direction. The movement of such materials are often facilitated by force of gravity. The creep usually do much damage since it leads to collection of materials over time especially behind trees; thus, it may lead to landslides triggered mainly by these tree particularly in cases that they lose root footing.
Reference
Gabler, Robert E. Physical Geography. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, 2009. Read More
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