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Geog - Essay Example

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by… Sudan. What has happened in the past 50 years that would be driving the current immigration/emigration patterns? Till the 2011 Sudan was the biggest, remains one of the poorest and the most geographically diverse African country. Researcher William B…
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Download file to see previous pages... Indeed, two rounds of the longest African civil war in Sudan cost the lives of 1.5 million people; continuing conflict in the western region of Darfur has driven two million people from their homes and killed more than 200,000; famine and drought in the 1980th displaced millions; nobody knows how many lives and migrants it will take to end the south-north confrontation. The statistic of refugees in the Africa shows that Sudan is on top in the list of receiving countries with Zambia, Uganda, Kenya, DR Congo, Guinea and on the top countries of origin of the refugees with Burundi, Angola, Somalia and DR Congo (Tabutin, Schoumaker 510). I think the most appropriate way to define the immigration/emigration patterns is to solve two problems. First of all, I’ll try to show the general political and economical line of Sudan history in the past 50 years. Secondly, I’ll divine country into four border regions - north, east, west and south – and analyze each region. Sudan’s history began in 1956, after the declaration of independence from British-Egypt rule. Northern Muslims took majority in government and didn’t want to deal with South. Consequently, the first civil war has begun. During the war had happened few coups and in 1972 was signed Addis Ababa Agreement that established the Southern Sudan Autonomy. ...
So, political instability provoked mass demographical emigration and intensive mass in-migration. The economic policy was very ineffective. After 1956, independent government followed the colonial type of economy by assigning more land to both public and private sectors for export-oriented production. Government created new economy on the lands that were previously inhabited and cultivated by indigenous population. Besides, many nomadic tribes lost their historical places. That’s why a lot of peasants and nomads were forced to shift their homes and styles of living to urban centers looking for food and water (Eltigani “War and Drought…” 29). Another big failure in economy of the Jaafar Nimeiri regime (1969-1985) was famine in the 1980s. In 1971, Sudan launched a plan for development to turn the country into the "bread-basket" of the Arab world (Ragnhild 202). But, instead, economy declined because of price falling on the world marker. The Sudan's few export products were seriously affected by falling prices on the world market. The uneven distribution of development activities, the drought that hit the western and eastern parts of the country during the mid-1980s also forced millions of people to leave their homes. After the Omar al-Bashir coupe in 1989, policy of islamization continued and the problems with the separatist movements in south and Darfur remained. Darfur is the western region, near Chad, with strong local elites that want more power and decentralization of the Sudan. In 2003 Darfur conflict was accompanied with mass murders, genocide, thousands of refugees. In 2005 the rebels signed a peace deal with the government to end the civil war. To sum up the survey of leading events in Sudan during the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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