StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Matthew Effects in ReadingConsequences in the individual effects of language aquisition - Case Study Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Matthew Effects in Reading; Consequences in the individual effects of language acquisition Stanovich’s seminal essay on the Matthew effects in reading clearly demonstrates how mechanisms such as reciprocal relationships and organism-environment correlation create individual differences in reading achievement where the rich-get richer and poor-get-poorer as far as their reading skills is concerned…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96% of users find it useful
Matthew Effects in ReadingConsequences in the individual effects of language aquisition
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Matthew Effects in ReadingConsequences in the individual effects of language aquisition"

Matthew Effects in Reading; Consequences in the individual effects of language acquisition Stanovich’s seminal essay on the Matthew effects in reading clearly demonstrates how mechanisms such as reciprocal relationships and organism-environment correlation create individual differences in reading achievement where the rich-get richer and poor-get-poorer as far as their reading skills is concerned. To substantiate his observation, the author undertakes to explore a vast number of literature and studies on individual differences in the cognitive skills related to reading and the article seeks to put forward a model of the development of individual differences in reading achievement. Stanovich begins his article by exploring the problems with the existing evidences on the issue. The author observes that “for many years, research on individual differences was plagued by the failure to carry out thorough process analyses on the experimental tasks employed” (Stanovich, 1986, p. 361). Researches on cognitive psychology have made it clear that one can never come to a comprehensive conclusion regarding performance difference in reading based on observation of a single task. As such studies on the cognitive processes on reading need to take into account the casual and reciprocal relationships among variables. The author argues that an effective model of the development of individual differences in reading should give primary importance to phonological awareness as it is the most significant predictor in reading success even though cognitive functioning such as nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary, and listening comprehension facilitate the development of reading skills. This emphasises the significance of phonological awareness tasks rather than general intelligence tests or reading readiness tests. One should also bear in mind that there is a reciprocal causative relationship between phonological awareness and reading acquisition. Children during their early reading stages need to grasp the spelling to sound code which will promote independent decoding in the long run. Thus, the author advocates that “the prerequisite phonological awareness and skill at spelling-to-sound mapping be in place early in the child’s development, because their absence can initiate a causal chain of escalating negative side effects” (Stanovich, 1986, pp. 363-64). The author also argues that many things that facilitate reading comprehension ability are developed through reading itself. Individual differences in eye movements while reading were closely related to fluency in reading. However, paring down the number of causal relationships the author identifies that it is the level of reading material that determines the nature of the eye movement patterns and not vice versa. Similarly, the context effects on word recognition had been thought to be affecting the reading level of children. Studies have claimed that variation in the use of context and contextual effects affect the reading efficiency. For Stanovich there can be different types of context effects while reading a text. While many researchers advocate that fluent readers better make use of context effects for word recognition and comprehension process there are many others who hold that “not only do the poorer readers in these studies use context, but they often show somewhat larger contextual effects than do the better readers” (Stanovich, 1986, p. 366). Stanovich comes to the conclusion that it is not that a good reader does not make use of visual information but that he uses only a lesser capacity to do so compared to a poor reader as the former has a more powerful stimulus-analysis mechanism. The author thus propagates that efficient decoding proves to be a better mechanism rather than context use in effective reading. As a result children with slow word decoding process tend to depend more on contextual information. The distinction between the nominal context and the effective context of the reader also need to be taken care of. Similarly, the decoding ability of the reader and the difficulty level of the contextual material are also significant in this regard. The researcher and his colleagues employed a longitudinal research design to test the hypothesis that poor readers do not rely on context to facilitate word recognition. The study conducted by the researchers among the first graders in the fall and Spring showed that at a comparable level of context free decoding ability “the recognition efficiency scores of the less skilled readers actually displayed somewhat more contextual facilitation than those of the skilled readers” (Stanovich, 1986, p. 371-72). This shows that the skilled readers have better context-free decoding efficiency and superior prediction abilities. Stanovich considers the Phenomenon of “Word Calling” as an inappropriate reading strategy as no semantic activation takes place in the reader. The consequences of reading history and practice also exert great influence on reading skill acquisition. The different histories of success, failure, and reward in the context of reading, the knowledge of sound structure and metalinguistic functioning, and the development of the ability to comprehend more complex syntactic structures through a variety of reading experiences distinguish a skilled reader from an poor reader (Stanovich, 1986, p. 373-74). Similarly, previous literature has highlighted that reading level match designs are capable of enhancing one’s reading level by correlating between cognitive skills and reading ability. In his propagation of the Matthew effects in reading the author stresses that reading experience acts as a critical mediating variable in the reciprocal relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. The Matthew effects in reading holds that children with good vocabularies read more and learn more words whereas children with inadequate vocabularies read less and have slower development in their vocabularies (Stanovich, 1986, p. 381). Thus, vocabulary knowledge facilitates reading comprehension to a great extent and vice versa. The principal of organism-environment correlation is very much in work in reading development as differences in reading exposure among readers create individual differences in their reading skill levels. The problem of dyslexia or reading disability also needs to be addressed. The author observes that flaws in phonemic awareness, spelling-to-sound decoding skills, and syntactic knowledge and awareness act as causative factors behind reading disability. There have been a number of independent laboratory studies that supported the Matthew effects in reading. Studies conducted by Ewers and Brownson (1999), Walsh, Rafferty, and Turner (1992), and Shefelbine also held that “those with higher lexical knowledge learned more new words than did those with lower lexical knowledge” (Stone, Silliman, Ehren & Apel, 2005, p. 309). To conclude, it can be stated that Stanovich’s article addresses many of the missing links in the previous literature on individual differences in reading achievement. The various topics dealt in the article seek to address the research question as to what contribute to the individual differences in reading level. The researcher makes use of a vast number of literature, research findings, statistics and research designs employed by other researchers on reading skills. Stanovich also observes that in most of the studies mentioned in the article the participants were school-labelled samples most of whom were either first graders or kindergartens. However, special care is taken by the author to include such studies as conducted by Klinge et al (1977) that take into account the sex, race, age, socioeconomic status, and geographic communities of the participants as well. The longitudinal research designs and the reading level match designs employed by the author for the purpose of the study answer the research question to a certain extent and keep the doors open for further researches as to the strategies by which the reading disabilities of the poor readers can best be addressed. References Stanovich, K.E. (Fall 1986). Matthew Effects in Reading: Some Consequences of Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(4), 360-407. Stone, C.A., Silliman, E.R., Ehren, B.J & Apel, K. (2005). Handbook of Language and Literacy: Development and Disorders. Illustrated edn: Guilford Press. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Matthew Effects in ReadingConsequences in the individual effects of Case Study”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/geography/1407035-matthew-effects-in-readingconsequences-in-the
(Matthew Effects in ReadingConsequences in the Individual Effects of Case Study)
https://studentshare.org/geography/1407035-matthew-effects-in-readingconsequences-in-the.
“Matthew Effects in ReadingConsequences in the Individual Effects of Case Study”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/geography/1407035-matthew-effects-in-readingconsequences-in-the.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Matthew Effects in ReadingConsequences in the individual effects of language aquisition

An Analysis of the Differences in Brain Processes of Males and Females during Language Tasks

Such is the case with the development of cognitive functions and language skills. While the brain may have complexities that we simply haven’t even yet scratched the surface of, seemingly every day there are advancements in our knowledge of brain functions.

MRI’s and various cognitive function tests have shown that males and females use different parts of their brains while performing the exact same language tasks; the biological basis for this is due to the organizing effects of testosterone and estrogen. Females have long been known to be slightly ahead of males as far as language skills at younger ages, but this could also be attributed to the fact that overall females develop earlier than males and reach...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

Nursing Shortage: How it Effects Nurse Management & Leaders

Nearly twenty percent of the hospitals in 2001 had registered nurse vacancy rates in excess of twenty percent. The survey conducted on behalf of the American Hospital Association in 2001 showed that 126,000 full-time registered nurse positions were not filled. The following year in 2002 the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that the number of states in the United States of America experiencing registered nurse shortages had gone up to thirty. The consequences of the shortage of nurses on the nursing professionals as evaluated by studies showing that the nursing professionals were experiencing burnouts, stress, and lack of job satisfaction, which was likely to compound the issue of shortage of nursing professionals. The...
10 Pages(2500 words)Case Study

Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Performance and Turnover

Most of these developments, not surprisingly, have come from communities of scholars focusing on their own particular countries or regions, be it the US (for example, Arthur, 1994; Delery and Doty, 1996; Huselid et al., 1997), the UK (for example, Brewster, 1999; Guest et al., 2003), elsewhere in Europe (for example, D’Arcimoles, 1997; Lahteenmaki et al., 1998; Roderiguez and Ventura, 2003). The difference in perspective on the value of people in organizations and the validity of HRM, particularly in non-Western Countries may be best understood in terms of the concept of locus of human value (Jackson et al., 2003). Jackson et al. (2003) came up with a conceptual map of international organization and human resource management...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

Effects of Menopause on Women's Life

It is typically accompanied by some distressing physical and psychological symptoms in women that also impact middle adulthood. There is variation in the age at which menopause occurs; in the USA the average age at menopause is 51 years, but the usual range is 45 to 56 years. For unknown reasons ovaries gradually begin to change on hormone production during a womens mid-30s. In the womens the late 40s, the process speeds up and hormones fluctuate or change more causing irregular periods.

Some womens periods stop suddenly; others experience a perimenopause, a phase of irregular menstruation, and symptoms such as memory disturbance, bloating and feeling tired, that may be troublesome for 5 to 10 years. (Brown, 2002)
...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

What Are the Effects of Industrial Pollution to Nature in Turkey

It is observed that electroplating and chemical industries are responsible for the generation of a considerable portion of emissions that contain heavy metals, and may affect adversely on human lives and environment. On the other hand, sugar, pharmaceuticals, and textile industries are responsible for the generation of organic pollutants in the atmosphere. Refineries, fertilizers, stone mines, and thermal power units are mainly the causing sectors of contributing a substantial amount of air pollution in the Turkish atmosphere. In specific, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide are some of the main pollutants that are generated from the burning of fuels in the abovementioned industries in Turkey. Though vehicular sources also cont...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

How Does the US Media Effects Evolve in Singapores Current Media

Lewis and Slade (2000, p. 223) in their critical evaluation of the effects of media communication on the audience argue that media effect is achieved incongruent with social context. Their study recounts the experiment on the influence of television on identity in Singapore indicates that US social values and Singaporean values greatly differ from each other. The sharp differences in program content have a negative influence on the audience because Chinese raised Singaporeans value marriage, social values, and collectivism whereas US social culture involves career, family and the struggle to balance the two. Therefore the question of US media's influence to destabilize Singaporean national identity is limited. This view is emphasi...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Teaching Language and Communication Skills

“Language occurs through an interaction among genes (which hold innate tendencies to communicate and be sociable), environment, and the child’s own thinking abilities” (Genishi, 2006). But just how does this happen? How do children learn to use sounds to communicate and then to place those sounds in the correct order to make themselves understood? While some of this behavior can be attributed to the imitation of the caregivers, there remain aspects to the development of language and communication that cannot be so easily explained. To provide a more complete understanding of how language and communication develop in the young child, it is necessary to understand not only the primary terms that are applied, but al...
12 Pages(3000 words)Case Study

The Effects of Financial Crisis on Supplier Selection Criteria of the Oil and Gas Industry Equipment Market

It is a difficult task to find those vendors who not only have the adequate quality and quantity of the needed raw materials but who also have an attitude of efficiency and display commitment to customer service (Sonmat, 2006). Further, organizations also strive to locate and select vendors who can be depended upon for long term relationship.

The number of factors or attributes desired from the vendor is vast, and different organizations and different industries place different importance on the attributes (Sonmat, 2006). Some of the vendor attributes may gain importance owing to the nature of the industry, for example, in the case of consumer perishables suppliers, like fresh vegetables or fruits, the buying firm would...
20 Pages(5000 words)Literature review

Syllabus Design for Learners of English as a Second Language

The translation and transmutation of syllabuses into the teaching procedures are generally recognized by the established conceptions of the second language learning methodologies, predominant amongst them are the Grammar Translation Method and Audiolingual Method. These notions in addition to the emergent concepts aiding to the structuring of the syllabus and curriculum for English as the Second Language are critically discussed in detail in this literary essay.

English being globally considered and established as the ‘lingua franca’ whether in terms of international communications or technological interrelations, hence English as the second language is extensively popularized and most sought after language...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper

Effects of the United States of America Troops in South Korea

Despite the few negative incidences of crime committed by the United States of America’s security troops that were deployed in the country on a peacekeeping mission.
Since the war in Korea began in the early nineteen fifties, the United States has stationed tens of thousands of soldiers, mostly the United States’ army personnel, in South Korea. Through the assistance of the South Korean troops and other neighboring governments, the American troops have been able to guard and offer maximum security to South Korean people. In line with the argument of James (2003), ‘most of the military bases in South Korea are relatively isolated’ thus the need for much attention from the troops so as to ensure maximum...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Case Study on topic Matthew Effects in ReadingConsequences in the individual effects of language aquisition for FREE!

Contact Us