Female Genital Mutilation in Sudan By The World Health Organization defines female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female circumcision or female genital cutting as “all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons” (Sharfi, Elmegboul & Abdella 2013, p.137)…
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Focus is also drawn on the different ways through which the government of Sudan, different international agencies, local non-governmental organizations, and civil groups are working to stop this oppressive practice. Communities that practice FGM perform it in varying ways. The World Health Organization has developed three major categories of FGM. There is Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3. Type 1 female circumcision is referred to as clitoridectomy. This mainly involves the removal of the tip of the prepuce, with or without excision of part or the entire clitoris. In Type 2, there is the removal of the clitoris together with part or all of the labia minora. Type 3 female circumcision is also called infibulation. This involves the removal of most or all of the female genitalia. In this type, there is also the stitching of the vaginal opening, where only a small opening is allowed for urine and menstrual flow (Islam & Uddin 2001, p. 72). Type 3 is considered the most severe form of FGM. In Sudan, there are different names that are used to refer to each of the three types of female circumcision. Type 1 is referred to as “Sunna.” This involves the removal of the tip of the prepuce. ...
For instance, some of the Muslim Sudanese hold that female circumcision is supported by Islam. On the other hand, the Muslim theologians in Sudan believe that there is no provision for FGM in the Koran (Islam & Uddin 2001, p. 73). Nonetheless, Turshen (2000, p. 145) notes that FGM is linked to Islam, even though not all Muslim countries uphold it. With regard to the prevalence of female circumcision in Sudan, the findings of Sudan Demographic and Health Survey (SDHS) of 1989 -1990 show that 89% of the ever-married women have undergone some form of FGM. The Northern part of Sudan ranks high, with approximately 99% of the ever-married women having undergone circumcision (Landinfo 2008, p. 6). In 2001, Islam and Uddin conducted a study in Sudan to determine the prevalence of female circumcision in the region. Their study focused on Haj-Yousif and Shendi, which are in the North, as well as Juba, in the South. Nonetheless, in this paper, the focus is not on South Sudan. The study of Islam and Uddin (2001, p. 74) revealed that female circumcision is highly prevalent in Sudan. 100% of the respondents in Shendi, and 87% of respondents in Haj-Yousif had undergone circumcision. The most prevalent form of female circumcision was found to be the Pharaonic circumcision, which is the most severe form. In Sudan, the process of female circumcision is performed by lay practitioners. These have little or no knowledge on the female anatomy, or medicine. The conditions under which female circumcision takes place in Sudan are below the hygiene standards. Furthermore, no anaesthesia is performed on the females before circumcision, and there is no sterilizing of the instruments used to perform female circumcision (Landinfo 2008, p. 9). A major reason why
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187). This act is divided into four different types which include; type I which involves clitoridectomy, Type II which is excision, type III which is infibulation and lastly type IV in which all other harmful procedures to the female genital for reasons that are not medical related.
ra”, infibulation “narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and repositioning the inner, or outer labia, with or without removal of the clitoris” and other “all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g.
The paper tells that approximately twenty-seven countries in Sub-Saharan and Northeast Africa practice Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). FGM constitutes the act of operating the private parts of girls and women as one way of meeting the requirements of cultural traditions. FGM causes injury to female genital organs, which endangers the girls’ lives both immediately and in the future.
The term ‘female circumcision’ is commonly used by clinicians who work directly with women in the community, but the official documents and policy statements normally use another term: ‘female genital mutilation’ (FGM) or ‘female genital cutting’ (FGC). The term FGM was first used in one of the first international documents.
Through the centuries, the attitude and behaviour of human race has been influenced by the customs and traditions of the society within which he lives. People and tribes acquire unique identity due to these traditions and culture. One of the most controversial traditions that have generated huge interest in the various segments of the societies across the globe has been the practice of 'female genital mutilation' in general and amongst the Kikuyu tribe in particular which had gained spectacular prominence in the colonial and post colonial era in Kenya.
f the activity back to the 5th century B.C where it was referred to as female circumcision and was documented to have been done on the females of the higher classes in Egypt and Ethiopia (Kontoyannis and Katsetos, p. 32).
In the year 2010, it was documented that medical
FGM is a normal procedure in the Maasai community and is based on religious and cultural beliefs such as maintaining marital infidelity (Barstow, 1999). Hall (2015) covers Kakenya’s life story in a media story, and the narration
Mothers, mothers-in-law, fathers, and religious and community leaders defend the practice on the basis of a girl's future role as wife and mother. (WHO 2005)
The arguments against this practice run at various levels. From a biological perspective it is know that female genital mutilation/cutting does irreparable harm.
According to the World Health Organization, there are four main types of female genitalia mutilation namely the clitoridectomy, excision, infibulation and other procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes (2012, par 5). The clitoridectomy is the “partial or total removal of the clitoris (a small, sensitive and erectile part of the female genitals) and, in very rare cases, only the prepuce (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoris)” (WHO, 2012, par 5).
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