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# Assignment 3 - Essay Example

Summary
A) Calculating the radial velocity: in calculating the radial velocity one must demonstrate that light from distant galaxies must be shifted to longer wavelengths through what is referred to as the Red Shift using the equation:
b) For particle reactions, the conservation…

## Extract of sample "Assignment 3"

Sur Astronomy A) Calculating the radial velo in calculating the radial velo one must demonstrate that light from distant galaxies must be shifted to longer wavelengths through what is referred to as the Red Shift using the equation:
∆λ/λ=V/C
For galaxy 1:
(8204 angstroms-6563 angstroms)/8204 angstroms=V/300million
1641/8204×300million= 60.007million m/s
For galaxy 2:
(6549-6563)/6549=V/300million
64.132million m/s
b) For particle reactions, the conservation rules of Charge (C), Lepton number (L), and Baryon number (B), all have to hold, otherwise the reaction cannot occur. Show that the reactions below follow these rules:
anti-neutrino + proton neutron +anti-electron
neutrino + neutron proton +electron
anti-neutrino(C=0, L=-1,B=0) + proton(C=+1,L=0,B=1) neutron(C=0,L=0,B=1,) +anti-electron (C=+1, L=-1,B=0)
Totals on the left side: C = 0+1 = 1, L = -1 +0 = -1, B = 0 + 1=1
Totals on the right side: C = 0+1 = 1, L=0-1=-1, B = 0+1=1
So the values prove that they are equal
c) Evidence of the existence of dark energy
Scientists through the Big-bang theory have known that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. The dark energy is the hypothesis that the scientists believe to be the most viable to explain this observation. Scientists describe dark energy as a form of energy in space that accelerates the expansion of the universe. Evidence of dark energy is through: the supernovae, large-scale structure theory, observational Hubble constant data, late-time integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and the measurement of the cosmic microwave background (Sarkar, pg33).
d) How the top-down scenario for the formation of structure in the Universe differs from the bottom-up scenario
The proponents of the top down scenario proposed that the structure forms through the collapse of a huge gas cloud and as the cloud collapses the gas forms a rapidly rotating disk which is the galaxy (Sarkar, pg55). The bottom-up scenario, on the other hand, involves the merging of smaller objects to form large ones, which mean that galaxies form by the coalescence of smaller structures to form one huge structure.
e) Features of the earth that demonstrate that it must be more than a million years old
The age of the earth and formation of the various specular objects is the point of contention among the scientists for many centuries. However, there are features and theories which strongly suggest that the earth is at least a million years old:
One of the theories tested is the calculation of the rate at which the salt is delivered to the ocean. The level of salt in river water is small and since most rivers flow into oceans measuring the evaporative concentration of the salts reveals that the age of the earth is more than a million years. The thickness of total sedimentary record divided by the average sedimentation rates also yields the same conclusion that the earth is more than a million years old.
Works Cited
Sarkar, Tapan. Theories on astronomical bodies. Calcutta, India: N. Sarkar, 1991. Print. Read More
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