Autism - Essay Example

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First, unlike a number of other developmental disorders such as mental retardation, deafness, blindness, and many others, autism does not have any apparent biological reason…
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Download file to see previous pages It is because of these reasons that autism has been deemed as one of the most complex and difficult developmental disorders with which families might have to deal with and family members of such children are often perceived to experience negative psychological effects (Gupta & Singhal, 2005). Dealing with traumatic events that are outside one’s control is one of the biggest challenges of life. With no possibility of lessening or eradicating the causes of stress, such circumstances require tactics where one transforms the self to fit the situation. It is important to understand the ways in which families deal with such circumstances as these are essential to cognitive paradigms of stress and coping frequently applied to families of children with disorders. Interventions concentrating on parents’ coping mechanisms have revealed encouraging results. These treatments utilize concepts from stress and coping paradigms to enhance parent education in problem solving and decision-making, communicative abilities, ability to contact and make use of social networks, and coping mechanisms such as encouraging self-statements, self-praise and relaxation (Gupta & Singhal 2005). A number of factors effect families’ experience of having a young individual with certain mental, emotional or physical disability and it is significant to keep in mind the distinctive requirements of each family, when deciding on the type of support being provided. Various factors such as cultural values of the family, socio-economic status, level of the disability, and amount of social support, type of family structure, and geographic location are significant when formulating and applying effective treatment programmes. All or any of these factors can improve or restrict the success of a treatment and emphasize the need for individualization. Thus the amount and kind of programs should be according to the needs of the individual family unit (Gupta & Singhal 2005). Research suggests that the number of children being red-flagged with autism is increasing. This increase might be to some extent due to enhanced assessment techniques or better knowledge of autism and other developmental disorders and of behaviours of autistic children. This disturbing increase in the number of children evidently requires for added facilities to fulfil the needs of these children and their families (Barnard, et al. 2002). From the developmental systems perspective, children are members of numerous social networks. These networks are created and are implemented by socio-cultural beliefs. Vygotsky, in relation to people with developmental disorders, suggested that the various aspects of development are quite similar in people with mental retardation and other disorders. He deemed working together as vital for the growth of improved psychological processes, and highlighted the significance of children working together in different groups (Vygotsky, 1993). Active participation of parents in the treatment programmes is increasing in the contemporary world. This involvement of parents has proven to be successful in educating parents to teach a number of skills to their children, especially play and communication skills. Increasing participation of parents during this stage, by giving extra information and incorporating them in ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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In the clinical practice, the word autism spectrum disorder abbreviated as ASD and it is always used jointly to refer to autism, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-NOS. Communication uniqueness that is the diagnostic of autism is recapitulated, with deliberation of the overlap amid social and communication problem, predominantly for children with autism performance at the prelinguistic stage.
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According to the paper autism is more than three times more likely to occur among boys than in girls. The exact cause of autism is unknown to the medical community, but there are variety of factors that combined could be causing the disease. Children born with autism require a lot of care and attention.
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The real cause of the disorder has not yet been discovered. However, psychologists associate it to atypical chemistry and biological processes in the brain (Corsello, 2005). Autistic children encounter difficulties when performing activities such as verbal and nonverbal communication, play, and social interactions (Cohen, 2002).
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Weaver and Hersey (2005) report that at least 1.5 million children and adults have been diagnosed with Autism in America as estimated by the The Spectrum Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), also known as Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) along with the developmental disorders that fall under its umbrella are disorders are characterized by deficits in social and communication skills.
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According to the paper individuals get extremely confused when they think about autism, as they perceive it to be a childhood disorder. An invasive disorder influences social and communication skills and to some extent affects motor and language skills. A wide-ranging diagnosis can include children with mental retardation and high IQ and people with extreme traits in their personality.
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As such, the disorder is not physiologically obvious to an observer since the child’s outward appearance may not give a clear sign being autistic (Wikipedia, 2006). The symptoms
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Symptoms of autism are generally noticeable to the trained eye before a child’s third birthday but the disorder usually remains undiagnosed until or after that age. The level of autistic severity varies. Some afflicted persons require constant and extensive assistance in virtually all facets of their lives but others have the ability to perform at a much higher level. Some, with adequate and early therapy, are able to attend regular classes in school and secure avenues of employment afterwards albeit somewhat limited.
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The disorder has a strong genetic connection and individuals afflicted with the severe form experiencing facial malformation ("Micrornas provide new," 2011). There are a number of pervasive characteristics of
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Yes you were expected to provide the hypothesis. Remember a hypothesis is a prediction of the relationship between two measurable variables. Hypotheses are always statements. A
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