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Obesity - Assignment Example

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OBESITY Author Contents Contents 2 Obesity 3 Introduction 3 Causes: 4 Effects: 4 Conclusion: 5 Recommendations: 5 References 7 Obesity Introduction Obesity is a pathology which is a global issue due to the increasing number of people who suffer from this condition…
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OBESITY Contents Contents 2 Obesity 3 Introduction 3 Causes: 4 Effects: 4 Conclusion: 5 Recommendations: 5 References 7 Obesity Introduction Obesity is a pathology which is a global issue due to the increasing number of people who suffer from this condition. It has proved to serve as an underlying cause for many pathological conditions which include conditions like diabetes mellitus as well as other diseases that affect the important organ systems of the human body (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute). Obesity is a disease which not only affects adults but a large number of children also suffer from this condition. The inactive lifestyle combined with the reduction in the physical activities as well as an increase in the consumption of an unbalanced diet account for causes of this condition (Biddle et al 2009). The condition has now turned into a widespread problem and many surveys have upheld the increase in the incidence of the people suffering from obesity. According to the statistics of the World Health Organization, in the year 2008 there were 300 million women and 200 million men across the world suffering from obesity. According to the Health Survey for England, in the United Kingdom in the year 2008 24.5% people above the age of 15 were suffering from obesity. The survey also indicated the fact that the rate of obesity between the age group of 2 and 10 years was 13.9% (Department of Health 2009). Another research shows that in 1993, obesity rates in the UK were 13.2% among men whereas, 16.4% among women. But it is observed that by 2005 obesity rates had soared to 22.1% of males and 21.9% of females (Information Center, 2006). Thus it can be understood that this condition has been spreading at an alarming rate. This paper will serve to explain the causes of this issue along with the widespread effects that it has on the human body. Causes: Obesity is a pathological state which occurs due to the constellation of both genetic and environmental factors. A deletion or harm to the Ob gene in humans renders them with a high risk of suffering from obesity. This gene is associated with the formation of leptin in the body which is a regulatory substance for the body fat and it conveys signals to the brain regarding the appropriate fat requirements of the body.Thus, effects to this gene lead to imbalance in the fat content of the body and hence leads to obesity (NCBI 1998). The disease also results due to a loss of equilibrium between the intake and the output of energy. This can be because of increase in the consumption of energy and decrease in the amount of burning of this energy by physical activity. This leads to an excess of energy preserved in the body in the form of fat. The consumption of diet which has an increased amount of fat also serves as a reason. Psychological pathologies are also associated with obesity. These conditions include depression and eating disorders like binge eating and increased diet in times of stress. Obesity also serves to lower the self confidence of a person and therefore a person loses the motivation of engaging in exercise as well as in weight loss plans (Biddle et al 2009). Effects: Obesity is associated with increased risk for the progression and development of other health problems. It can be a cause for the diseases affecting the cardiovascular system of an individual. These diseases include elevated blood pressure, stroke as well as coronary heart diseases. The flow of blood in the vasculature acquires higher pressure in the obese individuals. The lumen of the vasculature also reduces owing to the deposition of fat and cholesterol. This deposited substance is referred to as “plaque” and disturbances in the “plaque” lead to the creation of clots which can hinder the blood flow. If this hindrance is present in the vasculature supplying the brain, it can lead to stroke. Obesity can be considered to be a carcinogenic condition because it increases the susceptibility of developing cancers of the breast, colon and the endometrial lining. The cells of the body tend to develop resistance to the action of insulin and hence it can result in diabetes mellitus. And it also affects the musculoskeletal system of a person by increasing the risk of osteoarthritis and gout (Robbins et al 2005). This occurs due to the elevated pressure put forth on the joints due to the increased weight. The breathing system of an obese individual may also be affected and the person may face difficulties in breathing while sleeping. The susceptibility of developing stones in the gall bladder is also raised and hence the normal functioning of the gall bladder is affected. Gynecological problems can occur in females which may be irregularities in the menstrual cycle or infertility (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute). It can also affect the mental wellbeing of the individual and result in psychological conditions like depression in people suffering from obesity (Herva et al 2006). Conclusion: Thus it can be understood that obesity is a widespread issue that has taken the shape of an epidemic in the United Kingdom. The disease can be considered to be a life hampering pathology. This condition has many underlying causes and it has deteriorating effects on the health of the individual. Recommendations: Obesity is a matter of global concern now. It can serve as a burden on the healthcare system and hence measures should be taken to prevent the occurrence of this disease. Awareness programs would prove to be very helpful for this condition and the number of cases would greatly increase if the causes of this condition are explained to the masses. Not only this, explanation of the effects that it lays on the health of the individual can also be presented to the people so that they become aware of how dangerous this condition can be for their health. References BIDDLE S., & DOVEY T. (2009). Obesity - Is physical activity the key? Psychologist. 22, 32-35. http://www.thepsychologist.org.uk/archive/archive_home.cfm/volumeID_22-editionID_171-ArticleID_1456 DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH UK.(2009). Obesity General Information. http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publichealth/Healthimprovement/Obesity/DH_078098 GREAT BRITAIN. (2006). Statisitcs on obesity, physical activity and diet: England 2006. [London]: Information Centre. http://www.ic.nhs.uk/webfiles/publications/obesity/StatisticsOnObesity201206_PDF.pdf Bottom of Form HERVA A, LAITINEN J, MIETTUNEN J, VEIJOLA J, KARVONEN JT, LA?KSY K, & JOUKAMAA M. (2006). Obesity and depression: results from the longitudinal Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study. International Journal of Obesity (2005). 30, 520-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16302014 NATIONAL HEART LUNG AND BLOOD INSTITUTE. What Are the Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity? http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/obe/obe_risks.html NCBI. (1998) Obesity. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=gnd&part=obesity KUMAR, V., ABBAS, A. K., FAUSTO, N., ROBBINS, S. L., & COTRAN, R. S. (2005). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. Philadelphia, Elsevier Saunders. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. (2011) Fact Sheet: Obesity and Overweight. Media Centre. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html Read More
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