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Halophytes in deforestation and reforestation - Essay Example

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In the paper “ Halophytes in deforestation and reforestation” the author analyzes the depletion of earth’s forests on a massive scale, such as development of living areas, industries, increasing population, mismanagement and direct causes, such as cutting trees to extend land area for agriculture.
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Halophytes in deforestation and reforestation
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Download file to see previous pages Tremendous increase in world population, at one hand, limits the available cultivable farmlands for crop production while demands increase in crop production simultaneously (Koyro et al., 2011). An estimated increase of about 50% in global food production is estimated to be required by the year 2050 (Flowers, 2004). Forests that were depleted for purpose of agricultural land extension in past years, are now been exploited for urbanization and industrialization as the soil of those lands has been degraded, illustrates various soil problems and hence, led to reduction in availability of cultivable farmlands (Geist & Lambin, 2002). Increase in agriculture by expanding land for crops production in order to secure food for every individual is becoming difficult; for this reason the recent tendency has been to increase the per unit area production of crops which in technical terms is referred to as intensification of agriculture (Binswanger & Ruttan, 1978). This prospect can only be explored if the amount of nutrients that are available in the soil are sufficient to nourish and raise crops in repeated cycles (Lele & Stone, 1989). However, in present scenario, environmental degradation has emerged as one of the undesirable and prominent effects due to such rapid and frequent crop plantation and association of new cultigens and pesticides (Turner et al., 1993). In current situation, even after advancement of current technologies enabling researchers to supress all these environment problems, increase in crop yield is not as much sufficient as it should be to fulfill raising needs of food supply (Berry, 1984; 1993). Furthermore, soil salinity is one of the major environmental stresses intruding severe limitations on plant yeild and quality in various parts of the world (Flower & Colmer, 2008). Youssef (2009) has reported that nearly 20-50% of world’s irrigable land area is affected due to salinity. In the view of Koyro et al., (2008) nearly 7% of world’s total land area demonstrates salinity induced damage. The top most soil layer of forest floor is moist due to dense forest canopy that covers the soil surface and prevents access of the sunlight to the deeper layers of soil. This converts into dry soil due to high concentrations of salt as a result of deforestation where high evaporation rates are recorded as temperature of forest soil increases due to removal of forest canopy. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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