Chronic Risk - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
This is due to the fact that it causes changes in the expression of genes. The risk of being exposed to these toxic metals is in environmental and occupational settings. This exposure can…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.6% of users find it useful
Chronic Risk
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Chronic Risk"

Chronic risk due to Cadmium, Chromium, and Nickel exposure 14th May 14, Chronic risk due to Cadmium, Chromium, and Nickel exposure It is very evident that Cadmium, Chromium, and Nickel exposure is chronic (Alan, 2007). This is due to the fact that it causes changes in the expression of genes. The risk of being exposed to these toxic metals is in environmental and occupational settings. This exposure can result to outcomes that are harmful (Gurjar, 2010). The three metals produce negative effects on health that can lead to other forms of diseases. The level of toxity of these metals was studied using liver cells from a rat. These liver cells were treated with same concentrations of each metal. Patterns of gene expressions were then determined using DNA microarrays (Moore, 2003). In all cases there were common responses and different responses. Chromium, nickel and cadmium were found to induce oxidative stress that had unique and similar pathways and genes that responded to the stress. All of them were found to be genotoxic.
However, DNA damage was found to occur in chromium responses only. It was found that Nickel resulted to hypoxic response induction and chromatin structure gene induction. It did this by replacing the iron in key proteins (Allan, 2007). On the other hand, Cadmium resulted to genes that were perturbed distinctly. These genes related to stress from the endoplasmic reticulum. It also invoked unfolded protein response and led to apoptosis. It is evident that the only biological process that was perturbed to all these metals is the oxidative stress (Gurjar, 2010). This is an effect that is well of these metals. However, the difference that is very notable is the gene modulation involved in anti-oxidant protein glutathione production. This is as a response to nickel. It is also as a result of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that is ROS-induced in response to cadmium (Moore, 2003).
Alan, B. (2007). Distribution of anomalous geochemical values: copper, lead, zinc, arsenic, nickel, chromium (Phuket-Krabi-Takua Pa area) Overseas Mem Inst Geol Sci (London).. (1975). London: H.M.S.O.
Gurjar, B. R. (2010). Air pollution: health and environmental impacts. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis.
Moore, C. E. (2003). The spectra of chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, gallium, germanium, arsenic, selenium, bromine, krypton, rubidium, strontium, yttrium, zirconium, and niobium. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Chronic Risk Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words”, n.d.)
Chronic Risk Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words. Retrieved from
(Chronic Risk Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words)
Chronic Risk Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words.
“Chronic Risk Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


Chronic Diseases

...diseases. There is no cure for chronic diseases but they can be controlled (The Center for Managing Chronic Disease, “What is chronic disease?”, 2011). These diseases can afflict anyone regardless of race or sex. Past studies, surveys and reports all show that chronic diseases are currently the leading causes of death not just in the United States but around the world as well. The ones who are at a high risk of suffering from chronic diseases are those that do not have access to health care, especially those who are living in less developing and developing countries. Chronic Disease Rates across the World According to...
10 Pages(2500 words)Term Paper

Chronic disease

...?Chronic Disease Heart disease is a problem that affects millions of people every year. The majority of those affected by heart disease are at an advanced age, but that doesn’t mean that it cannot affect someone who is young. There are a number of risk factors for the onset of heart disease (“Prevention: What You Can Do”): Eating an unhealthy diet Being overweight Lack of physical activity Smoking Alcohol use All of these causes can be overcome through determination and hard work. First of all, stop eating foods high in fat and cholesterol and try a healthier diet. As a consequence, this leads onto the problem of being overweight. Once someone’s diet improves then body weight will naturally decrease. An...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Chronic Condition

..., as well as preferences in health education through focus groups. These focus groups were able to illustrate some knowledge and awareness of kidney disease and its risk factors, as well as treatment (Jennette, 2010). These focus groups were able to gain their knowledge from family and friends, and through these groups, they were actually enlightened about kidney disease being primarily caused by diabetes and hypertension (Jennette, 2010). In relation to the patient perceptions, the community also had a limited knowledge about the disease. The patients were afflicted with the disease, but they hardly knew more than the rest of the community (Cosgrove, 2011). In other words, the perception of the community regarding...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Chronic Diabetic

.... Chronic Diabetes There are several core signs and symptoms by which chronic diabetes due to hyperglycemia is identified including increased urination, increased hunger, weight loss and increased thirst. In addition to these symptoms, damaged eyes/impaired vision and eventual blindness, renal failure, impotence, foot disorders (due to insufficient blood flow to legs) and nervous system impairment are the long-term effects of hyperglycemia. Chronic diabetes also exposes one to risks of developing stroke, kidney disease and heart disease. From the causes, signs and symptoms of chronic diabetes it is quite apparent that the central way of treating or...
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper

Chronic Illness

...? Chronic Illness Affiliation: Introduction Cognitive adaptation theory has three reactions: search for meaning in the experience, attempts to regain mastery of their lives in general and finally restoration of self-esteem which happens through self-evaluation (Larsen and Lubkin, 2009). The four most common psychosocial factors that bring out a difference in recovery experience of not only patients with spinal cord injuries but also with other chronic illnesses are: emotions, cognition, self-esteem and social support (Lin, Cardenas, et al. 2003). 1. After the onset of a chronic illness most people begin to adjust to their situation. Using one theory, discuss how this might occur. (I want...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Association of corticosteroid dose and route of administration with risk of treatment failure in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

...Association of Corticosteroid Dose and Route of Administration with Risk of Treatment Failure in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease JAMA. 2010;303(23):2359-2367 Peter K. Lindenauer; Penelope S. Pekow; Maureen C. Lahti; et al. Name Date Background Introduction Two different conditions emphysema and chronic bronchitis are joined together and given the name of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.2 The major leading cause of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is cigarette smoking although this disease has also been reported in non smokers.1,2,5 The main signs and symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease...
4 Pages(1000 words)Article

Chronic Homelessness

...Chronic Homelessness The causes of homelessness stem from many economic and societal sources such as poverty caused by poor paying jobs (under-employment), unemployment, a shortage of inexpensive housing and the lack of public and privately funded services for persons who experience domestic violence, substance abuse and mental illness. These are among the main factors that play a role in chronic homelessness, a condition that is, only in rare cases, a choice for persons that must live outside the security and comfort of a home environment. Many, too many, average citizens do not bother to understand the underlying reasons or the harsh consequences of chronic homelessness. The homeless...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Chronic Illness

...Chronic Illnesses in the United s and Number Due Chronic Illnesses in the United s Introduction Chronic diseases have become one the biggest problems in the United States healthcare system, with recent trends sparking worries about the future. It is also gradually becoming one of the biggest parts of the US healthcare expenditure (Duncan, 2012). Quite unfortunately, populations with chronic diseases across the country have been on the rise over the past one decade, further raising questions not only about the capability of the healthcare system to manage these diseases but also generating worried on the future if it all (Pham, 2011). However, some analysts continue to...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Chronic Eczema

...RISKS & ISSUES Learner’s Affiliated institute Infrastructure and expertise The virtual support of the patients relies entirely on the IT infrastructure. For instance, a patient may be required to have a phone with a high pixel camera and reliable Internet connection, in order to access the virtual services. However, the infrastructure and the expertise are not a guaranteed. This may disadvantage those patients who lack the know-how of how to use the required technologies or lack access to the technologies altogether. Organizational and process changes Organizations and processes taking place in the contemporary organization are not static. The changes that occur in the organization may affect the ways of conducting...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Chronic Heart Failure Patients: Dealing With High Risk or Low Risk

...conducted in a single health care system and hence may not be applicable to other health care systems. Personal Comments Though this study is aimed at chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, we do not know whether the benefits apply to all categories of CHF (I mean high risk and low risk). A study by De Busk and colleagues (2004) did a similar study on CCF patients and they found that HBI is less effective for patients at low risk than those at high risk. Hence it can be said that high risk patients are more likely to be benefited. The authors were not clear about whether they were dealing with high risk or low...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Chronic Risk for FREE!

Contact Us