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Chronic Risk - Essay Example

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This is due to the fact that it causes changes in the expression of genes. The risk of being exposed to these toxic metals is in environmental and occupational settings. This exposure can…
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Chronic Risk
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Chronic risk due to Cadmium, Chromium, and Nickel exposure 14th May 14, Chronic risk due to Cadmium, Chromium, and Nickel exposure It is very evident that Cadmium, Chromium, and Nickel exposure is chronic (Alan, 2007). This is due to the fact that it causes changes in the expression of genes. The risk of being exposed to these toxic metals is in environmental and occupational settings. This exposure can result to outcomes that are harmful (Gurjar, 2010). The three metals produce negative effects on health that can lead to other forms of diseases. The level of toxity of these metals was studied using liver cells from a rat. These liver cells were treated with same concentrations of each metal. Patterns of gene expressions were then determined using DNA microarrays (Moore, 2003). In all cases there were common responses and different responses. Chromium, nickel and cadmium were found to induce oxidative stress that had unique and similar pathways and genes that responded to the stress. All of them were found to be genotoxic.
However, DNA damage was found to occur in chromium responses only. It was found that Nickel resulted to hypoxic response induction and chromatin structure gene induction. It did this by replacing the iron in key proteins (Allan, 2007). On the other hand, Cadmium resulted to genes that were perturbed distinctly. These genes related to stress from the endoplasmic reticulum. It also invoked unfolded protein response and led to apoptosis. It is evident that the only biological process that was perturbed to all these metals is the oxidative stress (Gurjar, 2010). This is an effect that is well of these metals. However, the difference that is very notable is the gene modulation involved in anti-oxidant protein glutathione production. This is as a response to nickel. It is also as a result of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that is ROS-induced in response to cadmium (Moore, 2003).
References
Alan, B. (2007). Distribution of anomalous geochemical values: copper, lead, zinc, arsenic, nickel, chromium (Phuket-Krabi-Takua Pa area) Overseas Mem Inst Geol Sci (London).. (1975). London: H.M.S.O.
Gurjar, B. R. (2010). Air pollution: health and environmental impacts. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis.
Moore, C. E. (2003). The spectra of chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, gallium, germanium, arsenic, selenium, bromine, krypton, rubidium, strontium, yttrium, zirconium, and niobium. Read More
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