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EESA10H3S Assignment 2 - Essay Example

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The process concentrates on issues that concern human beings and natural world. Human beings depend on the environment for existence, economic productivity and welfare…
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EESA10H3S Assignment 2
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Environmental Studies Task: Environmental studies Introduction
Environmental studies are educative processes that deal with the correlation between man and his surroundings. The process concentrates on issues that concern human beings and natural world. Human beings depend on the environment for existence, economic productivity and welfare. As a field of study, it provides knowledge in relation to scientific concepts, economic, political and traditional. In the current century, the environment has undergone revolution due to population difficulty (Kreipe, 2010). Resource depletion, land dereliction and environmental pollution have increased abundantly because of the changing drivers such as consumption patterns, population growth and economic activities (Kaushik & Kaushik, 2006).
1) Genetically Modified Crops is promising and can solve world hunger.
It is worth affirming that such information is false since genetically modified crops refer to plants that are meant for animal or human consumption by through modern molecular techniques. The plants are developed in laboratories to develop preferred traits to advance nutritional content (WHO, 1993). There is an increased debate about the wellbeing and the necessity of modified food since the 1990s. It is imperative to note that in America, consumers do not buy food based on mutual interest but on the premise of solving hunger problems and feeding the poor. It is mythical that global famine is due to food scarcity and population increase motivated by weather (WHO, 1991). Scientists have cautioned that our thinking about hunger is a great obstacle in tackling hunger. It is on record that the United States and Argentina filed a lawsuit against Europe over its rejection to consume GM foods. The crop is harmful to both the surrounding and human wellbeing (O’Brien and Mullins, 2009). Most countries that process the GM foods are present in the wealthiest countries and their concern is to make money at the expense of people’s health (Kuiper, Kleter, Noteborn et al., 2011). Genetic engineering is unpredictable since by inserting a modified gene from an organism to food, proteins are introduced for dietary food chain. This causes health effects such as allergic reactions. The GM foods are not satisfactorily tested making it mythical to say that world hunger can be solved by increase in food production (Chapeyama, 2011). International entities have made policies, which have improved production of export foods at the expense of foods for population. The crops also contain genes, which gives resistance to used antibiotics ( Zhang and Guo, 2011).
2. A) Use of animals in laboratory experiments in toxicology
Man’s survival has always depended on animals either for companionship, competition or for food. As he studied the environment, he acquired knowledge using the animals that he interacted with .A great physician by the used such animals to define the circulatory system. Most animals have a set of organs such as liver, lungs and heart, which have the same function as in human beings. This is the reason as to why the results done out of animal experiments are applicable to people. Reasonable expectations have it that research, involving animals has contributed to todays and future knowledge, which has led to improvement in health of individuals and animals (Sanderson, 2007). Research on drugs and efficacy in vaccines are based on animal experiments. Toxicological studies done on rodents are the linkage between the clinical phase and clinical development. Drugs cannot be introduced into clinical practice unless it undergoes a battery of tests in animals (Pielke, 2002).
2 b. Dose-response curve.
These are curves used to plot results based on experiments carried out in a laboratory. Dose normally applies to experiments undertaken on animals or people. The x-axis represents the concentration of the drugs while the y-axis shows the response.
2 c. Why high LD50 is considered safer than one with a low LD50
LD5O stands for lethal dose at 50.This is the amount of venom required in a controlled test to kill fifty per cent of the animals. It is a measuring standard for toxins. Higher LD50 is safer because it contains a large quantity of venom that would give accurate results during experiments.
3) Precautionary principle
The principle is evident in the 1992 Rio Declaration. It states that if a strategy has a risk of causing harm to the environment without scientific consensus, then the policy is harmful and that the blame will lie with the people responsible for the action .Risks are normally rampant in laboratories. Public health is based on precautionary principle, which is applicable in dealing with hazardous situations and it allows the policy makers come up with decisions when there is harm (Noss & Pimentel, 2000). Social responsibility is applicable in protecting the public from any harmful accident. Those who would wish to introduce new industrial changes into the environment must be in a position to convince people that the experiment being carried out is not harmful so that injuries are minimal. Most people have died through uncontrolled experiments (Keaulana, 2011).
Conclusion
A need arises to recognize the need for environmental studies for persons to take charge and conserve the environment. In as much as persons want to embrace technology, they should consider the importance of conserving the environment for future generations.
References
Chapeyama, M. (2011). Human Consciousness: Hidden Connections. Hamburg: GRIN Verlag
Kaushik, A., & Kaushik, C. P. (2006). Perspectives in environmental studies. New Delhi: New Age International Ltd.
Kreipe, M. (2010). Genetically Modified Food: Trade Regulation in View of Environmental Policy Objectives. Hamburg: Diplomica Verlag
Kuiper, H. A., Kleter, G. A., Noteborn, H. P. J. M. and Kok, E. J. (2001). Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods. The Plant Journal, 27: 503–528.
Noss, R. F., Westra, L., & Pimentel, D. (2000). Ecological integrity: Integrating environment, conservation, and health. Washington, D.C: Island Press.
Pielke, R. (2002). Better Environmental Policy Studies: How to Design and Conduct More Effective Analyses. Environment, 44(7), 43-43. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/224034983?accountid=45049
Keaulana, R. (2011). The Adult Hand Book. New York, NY: Xlibris Corporation
O’Brien, M. and Mullins, E. (2009). Relevance of genetically modified crops in light of future environmental and legislative challenges to the agri-environment. Annals of Applied Biology, 154: 323–340.
Sanderson, C. (2007). Understanding genes and GMOs. New York, NY: World Scientific
WHO. (1991). Strategies for assessing the safety of foods produced by biotechnology, Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Consultation. Geneva: Health Organization
WHO. (1993). Health aspects of marker genes in genetically modified plants, Report of a WHO Workshop, Geneva: World Health Organization
Zhang, D. and Guo, J. (2011), The Development and Standardization of Testing Methods for Genetically Modified Organisms and their Derived Products. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 53: 539–551 Read More
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