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# Groundwater Hydrology - Speech or Presentation Example

Summary
Graphically determine the hydraulic gradient and the groundwater flow direction in the figure below. Assume that each unit square is 10m x 10m. Hydraulic heads in meters above mean sea level (AMSL) are shown in parenthesis next to each well symbol.
The seaward flow of fresh…

## Extract of sample "Groundwater Hydrology"

Q1. Graphically determine the hydraulic gradient and the groundwater flow direction in the figure below. Assume that each unit square is 10m x 10m. Hydraulic heads in meters above mean sea level (AMSL) are shown in parenthesis next to each well symbol.
Graphical depiction of flow of water and hydraulic gradient.
Assume that well A is at 12m, B is at 11.1 m and Well C is at 10m. While keeping the scale in consideration the following calculations are carried.
The hydraulic gradient between A and B is:
12-11.1/60m = 0.015
And hydraulic gradient between B and C is
11.1-10/70m= 0.015
2. (a) What is the Darcy velocity of groundwater in a sand-gravel aquifer (hydraulic conductivity of 0.06 cm/s) showing a change in piezometric head of 1 ft in wells located 500 feet apart?
(b) What is the seepage velocity (or average linear velocity) of the aquifer, given the aquifer porosity is 30%?
a. Solving for Darcy Velocity or Flux
V= Ki
K= Hydraulic conductivity
V= 0.06 x 500
V= 30 cm/s
b. Solving for seepage Velocity
Vs= V/n
Vs = 30/0.3 = 100 cm/s
3. What is the hydraulic conductivity of a 10m thick unconfined aquifer that has been pumped at a flowrate of 1000 m3/day for a long time using a 0.2m-diameter fully-penetrating well? (Given:
The drawdown (s) in the pumping well is 0.7m and it is 0.2m in an observation well located 10m
away)
Solving for Ks
Ks= -Q x 1/A x ds/dh
Q= 1000 m3/ day
dh= .5m
A= πr2
ds= 10
Putting the values,
Ks= - 1000 m3/day x 1/3.14(0.1)2 x - 10m/ 0.5m
The sign of ds/dh is negative because as s increases, h decreases
So,
Ks = 6.3 x 104 m/day
Q4.Describe what happens when fresh groundwater discharges into saline seawater.
The seaward flow of fresh groundwater to coastal ecosystems is very important as it delivers the nutrients and dissolved constituents to these systems. There are numerous ways in which the ground water interacts with, and affect the coastal. It maintains the flow and aquatic habitats of coastal streams during periods when surface runoff is low. Groundwater discharge also facilitates water levels and water budgets of freshwater lakes, ponds, and wetlands.
References
By Janick F. Artiola, I. L. (2004). Measuring Hydraulic gradient in the saturation Zone. In I. L. By Janick F. Artiola, Environmental Monitoring and Characterization (pp. 230-232). california: Elsevier Academic Press. Read More
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