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ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY - Assignment Example

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Water is vital in order to sustain life and based on this fact, it is important to acquire the knowledge in ways of its proper use and conservation. This is where hydrology comes in. Since hydrology is basically the science of water, its properties and laws, it is a handy tool in addressing the hydrologic cycle of the processes in nature…
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ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY
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"ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY"

Download file to see previous pages The first catchment is Thrushel at Tinhay found in west Cornwall. In operation since 1969, shales and sandstones of Carboniferous Culm Measures predominate the catchment and is affected by the Roadford Reservoir (mainly for storage, hydro-electric power and pumped water transfers). The other is Wellington at North Fareham, situated in the southeast of Southampton. The catchment is predominantly mainly of chalk with clays (in Reading Beds) and sands (Bracklesham Beds). It has been in operation since 1951 and has been changed by the careful but increasing urbanization of the area in the headwaters.
After analyzing the gathered data, we will be able to develop an understanding of the water resources of the catchments, evaluate flood risks, and to provide further information regarding construction of impoundments.
Most of the data obtained for this analysis are described in the National River Flow Archives UK. To compare and contrast the two given Catchment Stations, the analysis uses the frequency flow histograms of both catchments. Evaluate the bar charts of the monthly flow characteristics and plot the flow duration curves of the data from both catchments. Using the Weibull and Gringorten formulae, and the Gumbel method to plot the data, we contrast the recorded flow data of both catchment stations.
To estimate the quantiles (probability di...
1994-95
31.29
1
0.091
0.909
1.1
2001-02
32.37
2
0.182
0.818
1.2
1996-97
33.43
3
0.273
0.727
1.4
1995-96
34.59
4
0.364
0.636
1.6
2002-03
35.11
5
0.455
0.545
1.8
1997-98
35.42
6
0.545
0.455
2.2
1993-94
41.28
7
0.636
0.364
2.8
1998-99
62.40
8
0.727
0.273
3.7
1999-00
65.35
9
0.818
0.182
5.5
2000-01
80.58
10
0.909
0.091
11.0



Table 1: RANKED ANNUAL PEAK STREAMFLOW OF WALLINGTON AT NORTH FAREHAM STATION WITH ESTIMATED QUANTILES, EXCEEDENCE PROBABILITIES AND RECURRENCE INTERVALS (1993-2003)
YEAR
FLOW,
m3/s
RANK,
i
ESTIMATED QUANTILE,
q = i/ (N+1)
EXCEEDENCE PROBABILITIES,
1 - q
RECURENCE INTERVAL,
1 / (1 - q)
1996-97
5.77
1
0.091
0.909
1.1
1997-98
10.40
2
0.182
0.818
1.2
2001-02
18.06
3
0.273
0.727
1.4
1995-96
19.03
4
0.364
0.636
1.6
1994-95
20.51
5
0.455
0.545
1.8
2002-03
20.51
6
0.545
0.455
2.2
1998-99
22.31
7
0.636
0.364
2.8
1999-00
24.68
8
0.727
0.273
3.7
2000-01
32.17
9
0.818
0.182
5.5
1993-94
34.56
10
0.909
0.091
11.0

Figure 3: COMPARISON BETWEEN THE FLOWS OF BOTH CATCHMENTS (1993-2003)


Figure 4: FLOOD-EXCEEDING PROBABILITY CURVE



Figure 5: FLOOD-RECURRENCE INTERVAL CURVE




DISCUSSION
To estimate the quantiles (probability distribution), first rank each of the streamflows from lowest to highest using the "sort" command in Microsoft Excel; i indicates the rank. Then use the Weibull plotting-position formula to estimate the quantiles (q): q = i / (N + 1), where, i is the rank and N is the total number of observations (# of years in the record). From Tables 1 and 2 we can see that streamflow value of 80.57 and 34.56 cubic meters per second (cms or m3 /s) has a quantile of 0.909, or in other words, 90.9% of the time, streamflows are less than 80.57 and 34.56 m3 /s. Alternatively, we can think of the estimated quantiles in terms of exceedence probabilities. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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