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Hydrology hw 9 - Assignment Example

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Insert name Name of institution Name of professor Date Hydrology Describe what available meteorological/hydrological information you have observed from the web site at NWS’ Guide to Hydrologic Information Web: http://water.weather.gov/ahps/ A lot of data on ground hydrology is available on the site generated by NOAA…
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Download file to see previous pages High precipitation results into high surface runoffs which instantaneously increase the streams volume causing floods downstream, the data is generated using long- range radar systems and used to give Early warning systems on floods. Besides, there is also data on climate change and air quality over time and scale in the entire United States which determines the weather patterns. Describe what's available meteorological/hydrological information you have observed from the website at USGS’ Surface Water Information Pages: http://water.usgs.gov/osw/ The site provides data on surface water systems including the river systems, lakes, dams and other related surface water storage systems. This data (R.G. Wetzel & G.E. Likens) II used in analyzing the various surface characteristics such as surface water flows, surface water storages, and its effects on the human and natural environments. There are also data on the threatened and discontinued stream gages due to reasons. There is also information on stream flow measurements using various methods. This is very important in relaying accurate observations and prediction on stream characteristics such as changes in stream volumes, stream discharge, stream composition and velocity. Besides, there is information on climate change and changes in the global atmospheric systems used in making accurate prediction of the global water patterns, both atmospheric water systems, underground water systems as well as the surface water systems. Describe what you learned about both subjects on “Areal Precipitation Estimation” and “Hydrologic Loses: Initial Loss and Hydrologic Abstraction” The lesson on areal precipitation estimation is very important on a practical basis as it is very important in determining the surface water bud get. This can for the base line in relating water uses to water availability in different parts of the world. An estimate of the balance between the losses and inlets is a derivation for the surface water budget. What are bare, wet HSG’s minimum infiltration rates and other four infiltration estimate methods introduced in the class? Bare, wet HSG infiltration is one of the methods used in estimating infiltration rates referring to the mode of infiltration which takes place after the bare ground overland soil after thorough wetting. HSG is not determined by any other factor such as the effects of vegetation, land use types, ground conditions, slope angle, type of bedrocks among others. HSG however, varies from soil to soil depending on the soil characteristics in each case i.e. highest in loose sandy soils and lowest in clays. Infiltration estimation methods discussed in this class include the use of the Empirical Method: SCS (NRCS) Runoff Curve Number (CN). The curve number CN, is a function of five major variables including: function of land use, cover, soil classification, hydrologic conditions and antecedent runoff conditions. The equation is as shown; where Q is runoff, P is rainfall, a is initial abstraction, S is potential maximum retention after run off begins, and CN is the curve number, percent of runoff. Holtan Equation, also known as Horton’s infiltration capacity estimation, is another method of estimating infiltration rates. The equation is; f = GI A Sab + fc Where “ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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