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Marine pollotion in central New South Wales estuaries in australia - Essay Example

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Name Institution Course Instructor Date Abstract New South Wales estuaries have faced adverse pollution due to the increased population around the catchment areas of the estuaries. This has greatly negatively impacted to the marine wildlife. It also affects human beings through the food chains…
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Download file to see previous pages Preventive measures should be enacted to prevent pollution of the New South Wales estuaries as discussed in the essay. Marine pollution in Australia specifically in New South Wales estuaries An estuary is an enclosed water body having different streams flowing into it. It has an open connection to the sea. They are the most productive natural habitats in the world. This is because the inflow of both fresh water and seawater provides a high concentration of nutrients hence supporting marine life (Levinton, 2006:12). Estuaries are classified according to the water circulation patterns. Because of this, estuaries have different names that are inlets, harbors, bays, and lagoons (Wolanski & Mclusky, 2011:107). Many people live along the banks of the estuaries this has resulted to estuaries suffering pollution especially metals which greatly affect sea creatures. Other effects are soil erosion, overfishing, poor farming practices and excessive nutrients that are from sewage and animals waste. Estuaries of New South Wales are the places of transition. They are enclosed with an open connection to the sea. They vary in size and shape. It is an ecosystem to support different species (Wolanski & Mclusky, 2011:111). Estuaries are very important natural habitats. Research shows that 80% of the state’s population lives in areas surrounding estuaries (Mcclintock, 2003: 4). This has resulted to the pollution of the estuaries. They are relied as sources of tourism, commercial, recreation, and cultural areas. Due to the high population in New South Wales living in catchment surrounding estuaries, estuaries are subject to pressure because of the human activities. Apart from the human activities, natural events such as floods and storms accelerate the rate of sedimentation (Wolanski & Mclusky, 2011:127). Other effects include increased in nutrients due to the sewerage disposal, loss of habitat for the marine world life and biodiversity. Biodiversity is an ecosystem, which supports a variety of plants and animals (Mcclintock, 2003: 23). The contamination rate in New South Wales is because of the increase in urbanization and industrialization. Industrialization activities realize harmful substances which pollute the ecosystem. In the 20th century estuaries, receive threat due to pollution and overfishing. The pollution is because of the high population living along the estuaries. Most of the pollutants are pesticides, plastics, and heavy metals (Mcclintock, 2003: 41). Due to the agricultural activities, land run-off greatly affects estuaries. The fertilizers used in agriculture pollute the estuaries thus affecting the sea creatures. Pollution results to depletion of oxygen due to the growth of algae (Wolanski & Mclusky, 2011:141). Depletion of oxygen results to creation of dead zones, which causes reduction of sea creatures. Marine pollution in Australia specifically in New South Wales is because of the urban and industrial activities. Industrialization pollutes estuaries greatly due to the waste materials that are channeled to the estuaries. The organic chemicals results to change in natural conditions in the water this is temperature, salinity, and levels of oxygen (Mcclintock, 2003: 67). The change in the natural condition of estuaries results to change in composition of the species. Some species of sea creatures cannot survive in high saline ecosystem. However, some have adaptation to support their survival in a saline ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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