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National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey - Speech or Presentation Example

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Name: Course: Instructor: Date: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiology is one of the best tools to study a disease; be it a chronic disease or an infectious disease. To study the status of a disease, the disorder has to be defined first…
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National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
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Download file to see previous pages Their data is comprehensive and nationally representative, drawing from a large and diverse sample of participants. Current presentation focuses on the contribution made by NHANES to research chronic disease like obesity and hearing disorders and infectious disease like tuberculosis (TB). Current trends and risk factors associated with these disorders are also highlighted. Is there a fine line between healthy weight and overweight, or between overweight and obesity? Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used tool to determine overall health and nutritional status of individuals over time. NHANES have made a significant contribution in studying weight issues. Their reports indicate that the percent of overweight and obese adults is continuing to increase (NHANES). The percent of people, who are overweight or obese, with a BMI of 25.0 or higher, increased from 56 percent in 1988-1994 to 64 percent in 1999–2000. Moreover if we look at the longer period from 1960s to 2000, there is about 18% decline in healthy weight. The bottom line is that there is increase in the prevalence of obesity in men and women both, and in all age groups (20-72 years) (Flagel et al., 1723-27). These numbers obviously raise question about the implication of these trends on health outcomes since obesity is a risk factors for many chronic diseases like arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and some types of cancers. Diabetes is more closely linked to obesity and its prevalence is also increasing along with obesity. Lifestyle change, education, low fat-low energy diet and regular physical activity can bring a modest change of 5-10% reduction in body weight. The benefits of reduction in overweight and obesity are of significant public health importance. Hearing disorder is another chronic disease affecting tens of millions of people in US. A maximal threshold levels that range from 15 dB to 25 dB can be defined as normal hearing. Loud sound exposure is one of the risk factors for acquired loss of hearing. NHANES report that infection, genetic syndromes, complications of prematurity, perinatal complications, ototoxic medications, and head trauma are other possible risk factors for this disease. According to NHANES, the prevalence of hearing loss in adolescents aged 12-19 years in significantly increasing. It increased from 14.9 % in 1988-1994 to 15.2-23.8% in 2005-2006 (Shargorodsky et al 772-8). This is about 31% increase over these years. Both unilateral and bilateral hearing loss showed increased incidences. Unilateral hearing loss increased from 11.1% to 14.0%, while bilateral hearing loss increased from 3.8% to 5.5% during these periods. NHANES 2005-2006 report show that 1 in every 5 adolescent demonstrated loss of hearing. 1 in every 20 adolescent has mild or worse hearing loss (>25dB). The interval factors between 1988-1994 and 2005-2006 like vaccination against influenza, pneumonia or awareness towards hearing loss due to loud music, had not effect on the reduction of hearing loss, although it was expected. Hearing loss at this age can affect learning, social skill development and self-esteem; hence it becomes important that young adults do no underestimate the symptoms of loud sound, tinnitus, and temporary hearing impairment during music exposure. Slight or worse hearing loss has also been associated with lower school grades, low self-esteem and increased stress. 2005-2006 NHANES report that higher incidences of hearing loss come from the participants living below the national ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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