Effects of Globalisation on China Introduction Globalisation has tremendous impact on the emergence of BRIC countries, Brazil, Russia, India and China as major forces in the global economy in the recent years and the rapid phase of economic development in these countries, which occupy more than 25% of the land in the world and about 40% of the world’s population with control over raw materials and manpower…
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Similarly leveraging of huge natural resources for the growth and development of the economy to be a powerful country in the world has been possible in the backdrop of globalization with economic reforms. The environmental impact due to global warming is very important from the international perspective and for sustainable development, because the economic development at the current level by exploiting the natural resources at this level is not sustainable in the long run. The Sustainable Development according Bruntland (1987) means “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (The World Bank Group, 2001) Background The Chinese economy based on state owned industrial undertakings and collective communes, was ineffective in achieving the desired economic growth in the country which aspired to become a leading international power. The economic reforms introduced during the period of Deng Xiaoping in the late 1970s aimed at catching up with the developed countries gave a fillip to a system of decentralized market-based economy. Goodhart, C. and Xu, C. (1996, p. 34) state “Following the decision to open the economy, and to increase the role of market forces and reduce the burden of state subsidies on foreign trade losses (since the RMB was artificially overvalued), China began to decentralize its foreign trade and foreign exchange systems in 1979”. The country was successful in establishing the phenomenon of ‘regulated market economy’ without compromising political control of the party. Consequently the foreign direct investment into the country has grown significantly aiding the growth process over the period of time. Environmental Impact The issues related to environmental concerns such as greenhouse gas emissions and global warming in the negotiations at the international level has gathered momentum starting from Kyoto Protocol. China being the world's largest greenhouse gas emitter is constrained to take measures in line with the world opinion and committed to 40 to 45% reduction in CO2 emissions from 2005 level by 2020 in the recent Copenhagen Climate Change Summit in December 2009. Finamore (2009) states “a carbon intensity target will require each province and major enterprise to measure, report and reduce their CO2 emissions and energy consumption, year-on-year, acting as a driver for greater efficiency and renewable”. The US and China as the major greenhouse gas emitters are expected by the world community to take proactive measures in containing the greenhouse gas emissions. Climate Ark (2007) states “The world faces a global warming disaster if the United States and China do not take decisive action to cut greenhouse gas emissions, a leading economist said at the U.N. “ Evidence China Daily (2011) states that the new issue of the British "Nature" magazine published the first two studies to draw definitive conclusions that human activity caused global warming is indeed global rainfall, snowfall intensity increased, an increase in natural disasters such as floods”. Unseasonal droughts, floods and other natural disasters have been closely associated with global warming. The social and environmental consequences of the industrial activities
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