This disease has a short history as cases of HIV/AIDS infection were rarely encountered before the mid 1970s. HIV/AIDS was a virus that was feared but was unknown and untreatable. The present pandemic…
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Number of patients of HIV/AIDS in the world is about 40 million, of which at least 1 million are located in the US (Nettleman, 2013, p. 1).
Prevention of HIV/AIDS requires understanding of all ways in which it is acquired. HIV/AIDS is acquired in different ways that include but are not limited to sexual encounter with an infected person and acquisition of infection from the use of a used syringe. Prevention of HIV/AIDS requires the use of contraception and ensuring that unused syringes are used.
Although HIV/AIDS cannot be cured, yet there are medications that can help fight the infection as well as the cancers associated with it. These medications are referred to as “highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)” (Nettleman, 2013, p. 6). The medical treatment of HIV/AIDS requires combining a minimum of three drugs to suppress the replication of the virus and to give the immune system a boost. The social treatment of HIV/AIDS requires counseling and behavioral therapy of the
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These fluids transmit the virus, since it moves from the infected individual to uninfected person. HIV/AIDS is usually spread through sexual intercourse. Other forms of transmission include sharing of needles, especially when using them for street drugs, mother to fetus transmission, and even kissing (Johanson 236).
This research paper aims at defining HIV/AIDS, identifying its origin, how the epidemic has affected people in the entire world, modes transmission, cure and prevention among other issues. It is evident that nobody has been able to identify the source of HIV. HIV/AIDS has been a key challenge to most countries in the world.
In 1982 the term “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome” was coined to describe the array of symptoms noted in individuals with AIDS. The underlying cause of the array is a depressed immune response characterized by the appearance of opportunistic infections, so-called because they are caused by organisms which do not cause disease in healthy individuals.
However, there are also CD4+cells within the central nervous system, these being the microglial cells which are of monocyte or macrophage lineage. These cells can be productively infected by HIV in vitro, and in vivo there is evidence of an HIV-induced cytopathic effect since syncytia-like, multi-nucleated cells are seen in the brains of HIV-infected individuals.
Immunodeficiency is a condition that leaves human beings susceptible to infection by the natural defect of the immune system or by viral infections like AIDS (Leksmono, 2008). In the UK, the death of a 49-year-old man in Brompton Hospital, London in 1981, due to a very weak immune system, may have been the first recorded case of HIV/AIDS.
The author of the essay states that HIV is the virus that causes the gradual collapse of the immune system that enables AIDS diseases such as Pneumocystis pneumonia, Kaposi’s sarcoma and a host of other conditions to affect the patient. It should be pointed out, risk behaviors for receiving HIV are unprotected sex and needle sharing among injectable drug users.
The virus originated, however, in two types of monkeys which were consumed by the chimpanzees. A hybrid of the monkey virus (SIV) spread through infected chimpanzees and a mutated form was eventually transmitted to people in the form of HIV-1.
However, certain authors have stated that HIV does not cause AIDS. For instance, Duesberg (1988), in his article provided certain evidences that HIV is not the sole reason for AIDS among people. On the other hand, many authors such as Blattner & et. al., (1988), have argued
In the first article HIV/AIDS Epidemic Still Ravaging African Countries by VOA’s Kim Lewis, the author dispels the notion that some of the African countries are winning the war against HIV/AIDS. The article asserts that the pandemic
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