Kramer was published in 1997, but it looks at a social issue that still concerns us today. The high rates of divorce in the United States of America have invited a lot of sociological analysis but most argue that it…
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This emphasis may be in the form of the psychiatrist’s advice, or may be reflected in classic American literature like Thoreau’s Walden, or laws passed to make divorce harder, and so on.
Kramer goes against many contemporary psychologists when he argues this. For instance, Carl Rogers claimed in the 1970s that the best marriages actually increased ‘self-actualization’ of the individuals involved. In short, the greater the level of freedom and independence enjoyed by the partners, the ‘better’ the marriage. Kramer suggests that perhaps we should dismantle ‘self-actualization’ as the goal and replace it with another ideal: mutuality. Mutual happiness and care can be just as worthy and fulfilling a goal in marriage. Compromise may mean a certain degree of loss of selfhood, but it does not necessarily mean loss of happiness or fulfillment.
Another issue crops up at this point, related to gender. Kramer reveals how women are supposed to be naturally more compromising. We have been so socialized into believing these stereotypes that in relationships women often feel pressurized to be the pliant and compromising one. Since this is true for a large part of the population, the kind of ideal of mutuality that Kramer proposes might just work out unfairly for women and perpetuate greater inequality in marriages. To counter this, Kramer suggests that by fully accepting mutuality and not expecting only women to inculcate it, we can work towards a value system which actually supports longer-lasting relationships instead of encouraging
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The attempt failed. But less than a decade later the Divorce Reform Act 1969 allowed divorce if the parties had lived apart for two years (and both consented) or five years (if one did not consent). How did such a dramatic change come about in what, in this context, seems a remarkably short time (Castles, 1994)
Kramer’s claim in ‘Divorce and Our National Values’ that divorce is deeply rooted in American culture.
Kramer claims that in literary, historical, economic and social terms, American culture reinforces the ideal of the
This type of support necessitates stepping past their own practice setting and into the less familiar world of policy and politics, a world in which many nurses do not feel prepared to operate effectively (Abood, 2007).
Based on the long-held values, in the fight against terrorism ensuring soon after 9/11 attacks, these values have been put on the line by both the Bush and Obama administrations. Through the implementation of political strategies to counter terrorism but at
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