Article response Name Professor Institution Course Date Section 1 Brief outline: Authors in this study cite there is significant reduction of pronouns’ use by competitor’s gender congruence in both English and Finnish in spite of the latter being a nongendered language (Fukumura, Scholfield & Hyona, 2013)…
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For instance, suppose two people are having a dialogue and using English language but of the same gender, they will most likely use ambiguous gender terms when referring to the other party’ (Fukumura, Scholfield & Hyona, 2013). This is because of self-consciousness evident among the speakers mostly contributed by semantic competition that prompts them evade utilizing distinctive pronouns (Fukumura, Scholfield & Hyona, 2013). The study also depicts the aspects of both competition and influence evident when using pronouns especially by same gender parties even in Finnish language (Fukumura, Scholfield & Hyona, 2013). This is evident in experiments 1 & 2 where researchers concluded other nonlinguistic languages shows similar characteristic in reduction of the number of pronouns. Section 2 In this article, Fukumura, Scholfield and Hyona (2013) arguments regarding the choice of gender and who to refer to based on situation influences either increment or reduction of pronouns. This is apparent in the event of semantic similarity, which influences the choice of referring expressions. For instance, this is evident when a referential competitor utilizes pronoun “they” to denote people having similar animacy (Fukumura, Scholfield & Hyona, 2013). ...
For instance, speaker of certain gender based on his or her situation may end up not to using any pronoun in referring to a person of the same gender (Van Gompel, Fukumura, Harley & Pickering, 2011). Hence, result to altering the number of pronouns in a given conversation, which is in agreement with all the three articles. Heine and Song in their study refer this as “desementicization” because the speaker owing to the situation he or she is undergoing when trying to refer to a fellow person inevitably ends up not discarding common collective pronouns. Since, he or she cannot seclude oneself in similar situation to expound more about others. Therefore, being either male or female in a group of the same gender when choosing reference expressions yields to “interference”, which in turn ends up to fewer pronouns as cited by the main article (Fukumura, Scholfield & Hyona, 2013). This is also evident in Van Gompel, Fukumura, Harley and Pickering (2011) study though on their part use the world “Same Features” in referring similarity of any given group of people or entity. Hence, implying these two articles based on the evidenced analyzed, actively support the argument of the main article concerning reduction in the number of pronouns but based on a person’s gender, which I also concur with and support. This is especially in the manner of elaborating though they are using varied words like “features” to imply uniqueness, which in most cases limits one’s ability to choose usage of certain pronouns (Van Gompel, Fukumura, Harley & Pickering, 2011). Section 3 Excerpt 1 …when the referent and the competitor are both male, the activated gender node being male causes interference, leading to fewer pronouns, because by virtue of the link between the
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