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This highlights the lively discourse pertinent to the process of language acquisition, specifically, when dealing with the issue of first language acquisition vis-a-vis second language acquisition. In this context, this research will delve on two significant issues, namely, “How far can the process of first language acquisition be taken as a model for the acquisition of a second language? What are the implications for the second language teachers?” For purposes of limitation and clarification, for this study the term “first language” pertains to the native language of a person, which has been acquired without undergoing formal learning processes to acquire the language, since it is the mother tongue of the person. It is the language the child learns from his/her parents, family, relatives, and from others (Yaz?c?, Ilter, and Glover, 2010). On the other hand, second language is another language acquired by the person, aside from her mother tongue. Second language is a language learnt after the first language and it is often contrasted with ‘foreign’ in terms of function and location (Cook 2006; 2008). For example, a four-year-old Indonesian child who speaks Bahasa Indonesia at home, while the child’s family reside in Netherlands, and therefore she studies Dutch. As such, the child is acquiring SL. On the other hand, a four-year-old Indonesian child whose family resides in Indonesia, speaks Bahasa Indonesia, studies Bahasa Indonesia in school; is therefore developing FLA alone. This distinction serves as a guide in understanding these two terms as it is used in the entire research. The paper recognises the broadness of the offered connotations of first language and second language. Nonetheless, what is essential is that through the minimal distinction provided between the two concepts, a parameter is set, thus, enabling the possibility of distinction between FLA and SLA. In addition, the paper also defines language acquisition as the subconscious process of developing language ability and that it is fostered in a non-threatening environment (Krashen, 1981). On the other hand, language learning is also a process of developing language ability, however, it occurs in academic setting and there is a conscious effort in knowing the syntax and semantics of a particular language (Krashen 1981). From this perspective, the paper asserts that aside from chronology and contrast with the term ‘foreign’, second language acquisition (SLA) is a process wherein the person as a student in an academic setting learns another language. It is a conscious endeavour to acquire a second language aside from one’s mother tongue. In this regard, the necessity of a shared framework between first language acquisition (FLA) and second language acquisition (SLA) becomes feasible as it offers the paradigm in which FLA becomes the initial framework in which sense and meaning of the second language is apprehended. In this regard, second language teachers are challenged to recognise not only the academic, language, and cognitive development of the learner, but they also have to learn to factor the socio-economic and cultural processes and other affective factors that influence the person as she goes though SLA.
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It functions automatically. In contrast, the learned system is built via formal instruction, and involves conscious knowledge for the grammar rules. According to Krashen, these two systems operate independently, thus knowledge from one system cannot cross-over to the other.
English is a significant factor in national unification of many nations from Sierra Leone to Malaysia. English is the national language of twenty-one nations including Lesotho and Liberia and an official language in fifteen others including Cameroon and Dahomey.
This change in terminology represents a more accurate reflection of the process of language acquisition. The article 'The effectiveness of Instructional Issues, Theories, Models and Strategies for Mainstreamed English Language Student' by Judy S Richardson (2005) addresses important theories for second language acquisition, issues that arise out of theories and how these issues influence or should influence effective instructions.
In the early years of language education, learning is a process of natural observation and imitation of words, sentences and sounds. (Seth Lindstromberg, March 03). Early language education is based mostly on the first language acquisition beliefs - or the acquisition of a native language.
Even before they turn one, babies are able to understand the meaning of words and by their first birthday, they begin to pronounce them in an effort to communicate to those around them. The starting point is usually simple words before they finally master the language to which they have been exposed, that is, their first language.
It also plays crucial role in promoting or enhancing the efficacy of teaching programmmes. Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill. Real language acquisition develops slowly, and speaking skills emerge significantly later than listening skills.
According to the paper the academic research and real survey analyses prepared since the last two decades reveal that the foreign language teaching instructions have undergone across a systematic arrangements that successfully enable individuals to improve their second language proficiency irrespective of their age groups. The instruction strategy for acquisition of foreign language is also observed as highly variable in the form of developmental routes from mother tongue to any other foreign language.
the reference of the concept as Second Language Acquisition, this concept does not necessarily mean the process of acquiring a second language only, but also the process of acquiring a third, fourth, fifth or other subsequent languages. The common argument has been that the
According to the report psycholinguist and developmental psychologist studies the acquisition of native languages. Although, there is no clear explanation of how infants learn to speak. Most explanation is based on the inference that infants have a natural tendency of understanding grammar and observation that infants simulate what they hear and learn from others.
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