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Name Instructor Class 13 May 2013 Substantive Equality for Deliberative Democracy in Woolf’s “A Room of One’s Own” Women need more than the internal confines of their mind to participate in public life, as they fundamentally require their own physical “room.” Virginia Woolf’s “A Room of One’s Own” (“A Room”) is an extended essay with six chapters…
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Just follow the instruction and pick up one u good at

Download file to see previous pages... Woolf uses this story, among others, to describe why women must have their private space to develop their identities. This space, nevertheless, is not only physical because it is also psychological, political, and economic. Deliberative democracy puts deliberation at the center of democratic processes and outcomes. Citizens must have the freedom to participate in discussions that affect their lives. Political equality is based on equal participation in these deliberations, wherein James Fishkin contends that political equality means “the institutionalization of a system which grants equal consideration to everyone’s preferences and which grants everyone appropriately equal opportunities to formulate preferences on the issues under consideration” (qtd. in Stein 321-322). Each individual has the right to express his/her own ideas and opinions. Robert E. Stein asserts, furthermore, that substantive equality is needed for deliberative democracy to happen. He defines substantive equality: “Substantive equality arguments claim that along with important procedural safeguards, minimum levels of social and economic equality are also necessary to ensure equality of participation” (322). ...
Unless people get fair wages or fair views as human beings, they cannot partake in public discussions (Stein 322). Society, through its web of different sectors and groups, must facilitate substantive equality. Substantive equality provides the necessary foundation of genuine deliberative democracy. Substantive equality has different arguments that must be explored further because they enlighten readers of underlying differences and similarities in the conceptualization and practice of the former. The first approach underlines equal access to resources. Proponents of equal access stress that “the existing distribution of power and resources does not shape their chances to contribute to deliberation, nor does that distribution play an authoritative role in their deliberation” (Stein 322). People must have minimal access to power and resources to meaningfully contribute to democratic deliberative processes. The second approach highlights capabilities. Even if fair access to resources exists, the absence of capabilities to participate in deliberation renders the former useless (Stein 322). Capabilities supporters assert that the quality of deliberation comes from sufficient deliberation capabilities. Another perspective of substantive equality pertains to reciprocity. Reciprocity does not give up equal access to resources. Gutmann and Thompson assert that reciprocity “holds that citizens owe one another justifications for the mutually binding laws and public policies they collectively enact” (qtd. in Stein 322). Stein remarks that reciprocity adds a layer of moral perspective to democracy, where substantive equality is right because it respects human dignity (322). People must mutually respect each other’s right to ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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