Different Models of English Introduction English is the first language of the countries such as England, Canada, Australia and USA. Traditionally, all new learners of English language were expected to follow the grammar and pronunciation rules as formulated in these countries…
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English has become the second language in most part of the world with an increasing interest to learn it by masses. Currently, a large number of the users and speakers of the English language are located globally, outside the main heartland where the language originated and flourished. People use the language for variety of purposes such as tourism, business, finance, entertainment, academic and interpersonal relationships and that is the only media of communication which is understood by most of the people to a certain extent. In the above perspective, the paper attempts to study the various available linguistic models for the learning of English with a special reference to Lingua Franca as the suitable model for the English learners in the China. Native-Speaker Model Kachru (2005) propounded his Three Circles Model for English learning. What he described as Inner- Circle that comprises of the countries, which are native developers of the English language such as Britain, U.S., Australia and Canada. Countries such as China, Japan who according to Kachru (2005) fall under Expanding – Circle do not have matured version of their own English obviously look at native speakers for their English language programs unlike the Outer-Circle countries. Kirkpatrick (2007) is of the view that Inner-Circle norms are not necessary for countries like China and they need not follow the pattern of pronunciation prevailing in Inner-Circle countries. He is of the clear view that the distinction between native and nativised varieties of English can easily be questioned. American English is a nativised version when compared to British English because some other languages were spoken there before English from Britain arrived there. So taking the grasp of local cultures of America, English got nativised in the American context. Same is also true for Australian English which got nativised through the influence of local cultures. Kirkpatrick (2007) is of the view that all languages routinely influence each other and evolve. Even current native English language is a mixture of so many other languages such as Greek, Latin, Germanic, French, and other Anglo-Saxon forms. Thus, it is difficult to classify any form of English as native version rather it is easy to classify them as nativised. Nativised Model Roger Anderson (1983) propounded the theory of nativization of language. According to him, the learner of a second language (English) nativises the language input in reference to their first language norm. Learners of the second language failing to identify them with the culture of the target language reject its linguistic norms and tend to nativise it. This has been confirmed by Kachru (2005) when he classifies his theory about The Outer-Circle. He classifies those countries in Outer-Circle, which have been either British or U.S colonies in the past such as India, Kenya, Africa, Pakistan, Singapore, Philippines, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. These countries have successfully developed and adopted to own version of pronunciation of English depending upon their culture and linguistic style and most of them have culminated into mature varieties as described in detail by Schneider (2007). Globish Model Globish is a simple form of English devised by Jean Paul Nerriere, an Ex-vice president of IBM. It has short sentences, no idiomatic expressions and uses basic syntax. It has vocabulary of 1500 words. This was devised by Nerriere to help non-English speakers so that
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