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Effect of lowering temperature in tissue and organ preservation - Research Paper Example

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In the paper “Effect of lowering temperature in tissue and organ preservation” the author analyzes the effect of lowering temperature to increase the time an organ is viable for transplant. Temperature reduction during organ and tissue preservations makes the mitochondria sensitive…
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Effect of lowering temperature in tissue and organ preservation
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Tissue And Organ Preservation Effect of lowering temperature in tissue and organ preservation Temperature reduction is influential in increasing the time an organ is viable for transplant. Hypothermic preservation of tissues, cells and organs is built on the premise that molecular reactions and biochemical events can be curtailed by reducing the temperature. Chemical reactions are reliant on the regulation of temperature in different instances. Lowering the temperature below the normal physiologic level hamper metabolic processes that have a tendency of depleting essential cellular metabolites (Fuller et al., 2008). Metabolic problems are induced due to the reduction of oxygen supply and nutrient flow.
Suppression of metabolic activities is a fundamental necessity in enhancing the viability of an organ in terms of preservation. Reduction of temperature aids in plummeting the rate of metabolism as well as restricting chemical reactions. When the temperature of an organ is reduced to a certain level such as 4 °C, the rate of metabolism is reduced to about 10% (Fuller et al., 2014). Such Propensities reduce enzyme activity. Cooling an organ in ice water is instrumental in preserving the renal reactions. It is imperative to note that the extreme reduction of temperature can have far-reaching implications for the well-being of a tissue or an organ.
The shock that emerges as a result of cooling can injure the cells effectively affecting the rate of metabolism. Temperature reduction during organ and tissue preservations makes the mitochondria sensitive. Enzymes in tissues and organs dissociate through inactivation because of cold-related propensities. Some enzymes are intrinsically affected by cooling. Reducing the temperature increases trans-membrane diffusion of solutes from minute ions to expanded molecules (Fuller et al., 2014).
Other Methods of Extending the time a tissue may be viable for transplant
Certain methods of the organ or tissue preservation require dynamic movement of gases and fluids. Hypothermic machine perfusion is one of the traditional methods employed in organ preservation yet oxygen persufflation has gained prominence in the recent dispensation (In Kirk, 2014). The application of these approaches aims to enhance the proliferation of oxygen and fluids to the establishments of an organ or tissue.
Hypothermic Machine Perfusion Preservation
This preservation method was developed to enhance the quality and time of preservation of kidneys. The method allows the movement of oxygen to the tissues to enable ATP synthesis. The perfusion of the fluids aids in the transportation of oxygen through the fluids to essential areas of the organ (In Kirk, 2014). The perfusion process is positively impacted when the temperatures are regulated to certain limits. Even though the reduction of temperatures can have certain side effects, the preservation viability is immensely enhanced.
Oxygen Persufflation
The method employs gaseous oxygen in improving the viability of an organ for transplant. For instance, oxygen is bubbled through a vasculature that is then released through minute proliferations at the organs surface. The method is effective in liver preservation because of its homogenous distribution of oxygen. The method has incredible capabilities of recovering the DCD organs (In Kirk, 2014). The two methods are critical in reducing the metabolic and chemical reactions that can otherwise affect the normal establishment of an organ. The flow of oxygen within the organ is the principal foundation of employed by the methods of preserving organs and tissues.
References
Fuller, Barry J. et al. (2008). Life in the Frozen State. CRC Press.
Fuller, B, Guibert E & Rodriguez J. (2010). Lessons from natural cold-induced dormancy to organ preservation in medicine and biotechnology: from the ‘backwoods to the bedside’ . In: Lubens E, Cerda J, Clark M, editors. Dormancy and Resistance to Harsh Environments, Topics in Current Genetics. Berlin: Springer; 2010. pp. 253–278.
In Kirk, A. (2014). Textbook of organ transplantation. Chichester, West Sussex : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Read More
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