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Scientific principles and techniques - Essay Example

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Apply basic scientific principles and techniques in mechanical engineering situations Tutor name Date Scientific principles refers to the use of the rule of law in a complex system to find solutions to questions of ‘why’ and ‘how’ various phenomena about the abstract world take place (Rao, 2003)…
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Scientific principles and techniques
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Download file to see previous pages Mechanics are based on a few laws of nature which are evident without proof or argument. Mechanics is a highly developed branch of physics which is tasked with the determination and description of the motion of bodies and the investigation of the forces that are associated with the motion (Gross, et al. 2009). Suspension system The suspension system of a car is a collection of important systems that are located on the lower part of the car and are part of the chassis. These include the frame, suspension system, steering system and tires and wheels. The suspension of a car is mainly composed of three systems namely springs, dampers and anti-sway bars. Springs are based on four designs: coil springs which are the most common and are made of a heavy-duty bar that is coiled around an axis. They compress and expand when a force is applied on them to absorb the motion of the wheels; leaf springs which are made up of several layers of metal that are bound together to perform as a single unit. They absorb shock in trucks and heavy-duty automobiles to reduce the force exerted on the wheels; torsion bars which are made of a steel bar that is coiled; and air springs which are made up of a cylindrical chamber of air placed between the wheel and the body of the car. Manufacture The material is commonly used is alloys of steel such as high-carbon, chrome vanadium and stainless steel. The manufacture process of the springs involves coiling, hardening and a final stage of finishing. Leaf springs are made from bars of flat stock and are heated to elevated temperatures. They are then formed by the use of a machine or by hand. Car springs are made by hot winding which involves heating the metal to very high temperatures to make it formable. When red hot, the bar is then coiled around a mandrel until it acquires the required shape then it is quickly removed from the mandrel and dipped in oil to cool and harden it. To ensure the spring acquires the required strength it is heat treated appropriately. For the leaf springs, the flat ends are attained by grinding. The bar is mounted in a jig and is held against an abrasive wheel that is rotating until the required flatness is achieved. A coarse wheel is used first then a finer wheel is used to ensure a fine finish and a cooling lubricant is used to ensure a quality finish and to increase tool life. In a subsequent processes, the spring is exposed to bombardment with tiny steel balls that hammer the steel and make it smooth and this ensures that the steel can resist fatigue and cracking after years of use. The spring is then compressed fully in order to achieve the desired pitch and length and this process is sometimes repeated severally. The coating process which is aimed at preventing corrosion of the metal is the next step. The entire surface of the metal is either painted, dipped in liquid rubber or plated with another metal for example chromium or zinc though electroplating. The spring is then tested through various quality control checks to ensure it adheres to the standards. Function They support the weight, absorb and reduce shock and help to maintain contact by the tire on the road surface. 1. Statics. At rest the coil spring is extended with the only force acting on it being the weight of the car. The leaf spring is curved at rest or when no force is acting on it. 2. Strength of materials. The springs in a car are made of a strong heavy-duty bar that is made of steel. This ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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