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Browne (2011) defines the term “life chances” as an individual’s chances of getting access to all those things which are considered as desirable by the society and not being affected by all those things which are considered undesirable by the society. Similarly, in the opinion of Ferrante (2012), social class can be identified as the phenomenon in which an individual’s belonging to a section of society can influence their life chances. Thus, one has to infer that the term “life chances” indicates having access to at least good education, healthcare facilities, food, clothing and housing.
An important point of Marx’s theory of social class is that the bourgeoisies, or the people who own the means of production, enjoy better social standing as they are powerful enough to impose their ideas on the proletariat (the working class). As the bourgeoisie class does not share the wealth justifiably, the difference in wealth between the working class and the bourgeoisie increases. Hence, the working class is deprived of the goods and services enjoyed by the bourgeoisie (Browne 2011). Similarly, Weber categorises the society into two groups; the negatively privileged property class and the positively privileged property class. The positively privileged class is blessed with marketable abilities, and hence is able to enjoy expensive consumer goods and better services. On the other hand, the other class has no marketable abilities, and hence, is deprived of good goods and services (Ferrante 2012). It is pointed out by a UK Government report that measuring child poverty is a difficult task because their life chances are influenced by a number of factors other than just income of the family. Some such dimensions to be included are material deprivation, worklessness, unmanageable debt, poor housing, parental skill level, access to quality education, family stability, and parental health (Secretary of State for Work and Pensions 2012)
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Women, who are not blessed of having a child, attempt every means possible just to conceive a child even to the extent of adopting or purchasing a baby just to have a child. Children are prominent figures everywhere in television commercials or advertisements, movies, storybooks, novels, and soap operas.
In the preface of Emile, Rousseau says: “We know nothing of childhood; and with our mistaken notions the further we advance the further we go astray. The wisest writers devote themselves to what a man ought to know, without asking what a child is capable of learning.
Childhood has been a subject of interest in the intellectual world as we try to dig deep into the constructs of childhood and how they have been changing with time. This is because childhood determines what the grown up person will be. Therefore childhood can be a good predictor of the later person.
This is not possible if the roots had not been strong. So I would say it's the childhood that determines the fate of a person as Milton clearly said,
In my life childhood days were more pleasant, carefree days. I wish I could go back to those days to shape me better.
Under these terms, the main question is not whether the youth transition is faulty or not but if the environment of young people has the necessary willing to understand the constantly changing social conditions and to cooperate with them in order to achieve a more integrated adaptation in the society.
The aim of this literature is to analytically pinpoint the differing social modes, towards the study of childhood in Australia.
Castaneda, C. (2002) The Child in Theory: post-structuralism, feminism, and psychoanalysis. In
The society determines the social values adopted by families. Therefore, this forms a direct link between the society and the growing child. After attaining the age of going to school, children become exposed to a broader social context
Family is one of the main social institutions that have a great impact on the society. The role of family in a society is expected to help in promoting growth of the individual as well as the society as a whole. Understanding the
Therefore, they face effects of factors such as culture, government and the economy. Berry shares that the society should not view the rights of children based on them having responsibilities (Mayall, 1994, 4). Rather, it is the recognition of these responsibilities that