According to Wagner (2005) cognitive development can be defined as how an individual perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of his or her world by the interaction of genetic and learned factors (Wagner, 2005).
There are numerous theories of cognitive development but the most illustrious and leading theory of cognitive development is that of Jean Piaget known as Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory…
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According to Piaget's theory, cognitive development takes place in four separate stages and each stage progresses onto being more refined and conceptual levels of thought. Sensorimotor, the first stage (birth to 24 months) is characterized by knowledge being achieved mainly through sensory impressions and motor action. At the end of this stage, the child will have a little understanding outside what can be sensed. The subsequent stage is the preoperational stage (2 to 7 years) describes how child shifts from sensory testing to the progression of language and using of symbols. The basic characteristics of the stage are reading and a quick increase in vocabulary. The third stage is concrete operational (7 to 11 years) shows significant developments in perception and in the last phase known as the formal operational (11 to adulthood) explains the child's developing the skill to think about hypothetical conditions and reflect abstractly.
Lev'Vygotsky, another renowned theorist, proposed the Sociocultural Theory of Development which suggested that children learn through socially interacting with their surrounding culture and communicate with others to learn the cultural values of the society through dialogue.
Children progress in the direction of more individualized thought process during these social interactions. The co-constructed development incorporates individuals interacting through shared activities. Once the child is assisted in this process, he or she may be able to use enhanced strategies in the future if a familiar situation arises. This leads to internalization, which further results in the child's independent thought process.
There are essential similarities between the natures of development of intelligence in children. This is particularly obvious in their views on the stage-related development process of cognitive abilities. Vygotsky is well known on his position on the importance of social factors in development. Piaget stressed the vital role of social factors in the building of knowledge. According to Piaget, social interaction is necessary in order to develop logic. Furthermore, both Vygotsky and Piaget agreed that it is the development of the individual which ultimately takes place. They also stated that internalization is not a process of copying material from the environment but is a transformative process.
Piaget investigated the fundamental mechanisms in the individual constructing its thoughts, while Vygotsky dealt with socially developed mechanisms for constructing language meaning and learning. But both of them relate mental processes to the generative constructions of systems that maintain development, that is, in culture or in the individual interacting with its environment. In Vygotsky's opinion language is makes human species humanized and makes human thought a part of culture. On the other hand, language for Paiget is one of the five behavior patterns that manifest representational intelligence in children. Paiget's theory of intelligence is based on biological factors, but it also implies social dimensions as well. The
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The conclusion states that child’s social-emotional development is the “missing piece” in education because the elements required of this kind of development are not taught formally in school. These are acquired through experiential dimensions of a child’s activities like intermingling with peers, encountering simple daily manageable problems like toilet training, for example.
In most cases, teachers are advised to be geared up in meeting a wide variety of learners. Furthermore, they should be aware of human development and learning requirements which are essential to them. This paper will discuss issues related to human development and learning based on the scenario given.
They all claim that if the person does not have his needs met while going through the developmental stages, if his essential core is deprived of fulfillment, and if all eight stages of development are not successfully completed in correct sequence the person will fall short of developing healthy skills needed to be the type of citizen he could have otherwise been.
People experience cognitive growth through learning and integrating everything in their environment into different forms of memory to then make use of the memory later on. Lastly, social growth can also be observed, how one learns to interact with different types of people and exploring all the different types of social interaction.
Instead of paying attention, the student is constantly drawing, sleeping, or daydreaming, and has a hard time sitting still. The student is reported to read at a second-grade level, with poor comprehension of what he has read. Becoming easily frustrated with academic tasks, he or she tends to give up quickly.
ears old, whereas the philosophy of initial human education (primary and secondary education in modern understanding) appeared in the 17th -18th centuries under the influence of Rousseau’s and Milton’s studies. Nevertheless, the psychological side of child education had
It is the hotel industry that is being focused on. This hotel has managers and employees i.e. the staff who work under these managers. Since the hotel is catering to a number of customers who belong to different nationalities and different cultures, the hotel found it necessary to staff international managers, especially in the post of human resource managers because the hotel planned to employ many intercultural workforces who would be better able to deal with all kinds of customers.
The human resources hired by production agencies for the movies are basically the ones who work in the projection department and who have to deal with the slicing and the making of the films that are ultimately run in the cinema halls. Investigating their processes and knowledge is the basic ordeal and that has been decided to be done on a two fold basis, where first a face to face interview will be taken with two chosen projectionists who directly work in the projection room and deal themselves with the slicing of the films, and the second step would be the silent observation of how they work to get to know about mistakes that they are making which they themselves might not be aware of.
the outside, and making that which is drawn in a real part of me." I am talking about any learning in which the experience of the learner progresses along this line: "No, no, thats not what I want"; "Wait! This is closer to what I am interested in, what I need"; "Ah, here it
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