StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

University education courses for teachers - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
The development and progress of any society is closely linked to the educational standard of its constituents. The propagation of knowledge is, therefore, the most important activity in molding the society, in order to successfully meet future challenges…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER92.7% of users find it useful
University education courses for teachers
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "University education courses for teachers"

Educational practice-based Enquiry Introduction: Preamble: The development and progress of any society is closely linked to the educational standard of its constituents. The propagation of knowledge is, therefore, the most important activity in molding the society, in order to successfully meet future challenges. With the knowledge base ever increasing, in terms of depth and diversity, it is essential that the methods of imparting knowledge are monitored, researched, optimized and revised on a continuous basis. Early realization of this need has resulted in a continuous research process, since past several decades, on not only the improvement of teaching methods, but also on the efficacy of teachers as individuals, as they are the primary instruments of knowledge propagation. Mere possession of knowledge is not sufficient, unless it is backed by an effective method of imparting not only its content, but also its usefulness to the society. Both the teachers and students being human individuals susceptible to diverse behavioral patterns, social and cultural backgrounds, it is also important to impart the basic values which sustain the contemporary modern society, which include scientific temper in the field of knowledge and a sense of fellow-being, justice and compassion in social relations. The psychological aspect of motivation, commitment and engagement in the teaching-learning process is also an essential parameter of any study of this subject. Continual Professional Development (CPD) is the keyword for the teachers today. In this context, educators are faced with a myriad of options to fulfill their CPD needs. They may be required to participate in summer courses, in-service training seminars, weekend lectures or workshops and attend educational conferences. In some instances, during their employment, they are offered the opportunity to undergo university courses as an option for Further Education (TQFE) and Professional Development (PD). For schools and universities to continue to offer such options to full time teachers, it is important that they know the effectiveness and practicality of such ventures. Education professionals can benefit from knowing potential effectiveness and possible downfalls of such undertakings.
Research topic: In order to evaluate the efficacy of these courses, it is necessary to conduct an elaborate research on "How does involvement in a university course related to teaching practice affect teachers' practices, attitudes and beliefs about their professional practice and continual professional development (CPD) ".
Scope of this paper: The subject areas covered by these UG courses broadly include:
Theories of learning and teaching (PF410)
Mentoring and Coaching (PF416)
Educational practice-based Enquiry (PF411)
Developing Leadership Skills (EE421)
School Self-Evaluation and Improvement (EE423)
Since comprehensive research enquiry covering all the above topics will need vast amounts of resources, the present research is focused on a limited subject area and is titled as "How does participation in a UG university course related to teaching practice and applied research, affect teachers' practices and beliefs about their teaching and professional development" The scope of this study is limited to the identification of the effects of participation in an applied research course from UG on teaching and professional practices within the School of Creative Sciences (SCS) at Sharjah. The main objectives are:
To describe the effects of offering PG studies as an option for the school-teachers in the school's CPD program.
To identify common factors in the perceived effects of participation.
To identify the most common factors influencing SCS teachers' choice to participate in UG courses.
To identify the most common types of support reviewed for participants involved in a PG CPD program at SCS, Sharjah.
Review of literature:
Scientific methods applied to education have been the subject of study since the later part of nineteenth century. Notable contributions have been made by researchers such as Alexander Bain (1879), Richard G. Boone(1904), Burdette Ross Buckingham(1926), to name a few, on the experimentalist and progressive educational thought. The post war period saw the likes of Kurt Lewin (1946) and others. Lewin's model is a view of research composed of action cycles including analysis, fact- finding, conceptualization, planning, implementation and evaluation of action. This model was, later, progressively refined and modified by several theorists and researchers such as Elliot, Ebutt etc. The progression of all this research led to the evolution of various strategies in Teachers' education programs, and culminated in the formulation of foundation as well as advanced university courses on Teachers' Training, to assist the teaching fraternity in their Continual Professional Development. A systematic procedure of awarding Diploma and Degree certifications was instituted. Currently, the teachers are required to attend these courses and get certified, in order to qualify for the teaching positions in schools as well higher- level educational institutions. As is true with any developmental research process, constant monitoring, review and readjustment is essential to maintain teachers' education effective, in the light of variables such as expanding knowledge base, changes in the characteristics and population of pupils and teachers, newer teaching technologies available, changing social and environmental factors etc.
A review of literature pertaining to the topic of this paper, which is to study the impact of professional development courses on the teachers' practices and beliefs, has highlighted the following facts:
1. The report published by the office for the standards in education UK, Ofsted (2002), has observed during the inspection of schools all over UK, that the assessment strategies of the CPD programs are generally weak, because the evaluation process is carried out immediately after the CPD activity, and the teachers' responses are based on notional perceptions rather than a studied judgment, and the responses tend to be impressionistic and anecdotal. The subject dimension also lacks specifics and therefore the professional development lacks a clear focus Ofsted (2002, p.15). Further, it is observed that the teachers commonly believe that simply attending the CPD courses would provide sufficient evidence, that the objective of professional development in terms of improvement of teaching practice has been met. Hence, more rigour is necessary while setting professional development objectives.
2. According to a study on "How education matters" by Darling- Hammond, Linda, (n.d., p167 ), teachers from short term programs report less satisfaction and commitment because of insufficient preparation time which is needed along with the coursework.
3. The study data from the Eisenhower-assisted professional development program, Teacher outcomes (1999), indicates that teachers participating in reform type of activities such as mentoring, coaching, group activity, are more likely than teachers in traditional forms of professional development, like workshops, to report enhanced knowledge and skills, and also changes in classroom practice.
4, A report on the gaps in Research to Practice, in child and adolescent development programs within educator preparation programs published by NCATE (2007 ), observed that the educator programs offer courses in development, but many texts offer no application oriented material. Hence it recommends that the assessment of teachers should include application of knowledge base as one of the criterion in order to increase effectiveness of CPD.
5. A review study on the outcome of TQ (FE) courses, by the Professional Development Forum (n.d.) for teachers reveals a positive feedback on the utility of these courses as far as subject Knowledge and improvement of classroom practices are concerned. The staff comments that it is enlightening to be in student mode, and to experience learning from the 'other side'. However it is felt that recognition by the administrators that the staff needs support is an important factor in ensuring success of the CPD.
6. Evaluation techniques: Two types of evaluation techniques are generally employed, the formative and the summative. Formative evaluation is a process of ongoing feedback on performance. The purposes are to identify the aspects of performance that need to improve and to offer corrective suggestions. Formative evaluation need not make a judgment. The observations and perceptions can be simply shared for further corrective action. Summative evaluation is a process of identifying larger patterns and trends in performance and judging these summary statements against criteria to obtain performance ratings. Usually the faculty assumes responsibility for completing the summative evaluation at the end of the course( Formative versus Summative evaluation ; n.d.).
Research methods: According to McKernan (1996), various research methodologies are employed for gathering, analysis and evaluation of input data.
Observational methods are comprised of narratives, structured protocols like checklists etc. and ratings. They are used within the natural environment of the participants, rather than artificial laboratory reconstruction. Case study and anecdotal records also form part of this method.
Non- observational, survey and self-report techniques are another form of research methodology. Interviews, questionnaires, and attitude scales are examples of this methodology. The strength of attitude can be measured by assigning a number code to each attitude, for example, strongly agree = 5, agree = 4, uncertain = 3, disagree = 2, strongly disagree = 1, in order to assess the response with the help of a rating scale
The present research topic, as a reflective human activity, needs to uncover human beliefs and attitudes in arriving at understanding. Therefore attitude scaling method and questionnaires are suitable for the present study.
Research Design:
In order to achieve the research objectives stated in the introduction, it is necessary to translate the enquiry into a logical set of questions. These questions are required to elicit a response, which answer the points raised in the stated objectives as clearly as possible.
Qualitative and quantitative approaches: Quantitative research is an inquiry into an identified problem, based on testing a theory, measured with numbers, and analyzed using statistical methods. The goal is to find whether the predictive generalizations of a theory hold true. Qualitative process of inquiry has the goal of understanding a social or human problem from multiple perspectives, (Mason, J; 1996). Therefore, under the present context a qualitative approach is found to be more appropriate.
A series of multi-step modules have been designed as an option for the teaching staff of the School of Creative Science at Sharjah. The teachers in this group participated in one of the following university courses during the first term of the year, either, Mentoring and coaching (Module PF416), or Theories of Learning and Teaching (Module PF410). They are presently all involved in small -scale research projects as an assignment within their current course; Educational practice-based Enquiry (Module PF411).
The questionnaire has been designed to gather the initial impressions about the program and whether or not it has affected their choices of teaching strategies and interactions with their colleagues. The questions are as follows:
Question1: What are your reasons for choosing to participate in the UG program at SCS It is expected that the participants will mention career interest, professional development, or both as primary reasons.
Question 2: What has been most challenging to you as a UG participant, both professionally, and personally . The expected factors on the professional front are regarding adequacy of the course content or techniques. On the personal front, it is possible that certain personal difficulties or issues related to the school management will be expressed. These issues may include support provided during coursework by the management, as the teachers are required to attend to their teaching responsibility, in addition to the course they attend.
Question 3: What has been most beneficial to you as a UG participant, both personally and professionally . The answer to this question is expected to give us an idea about the attitude of the participants, whether they are really convinced about the usefulness of the program. It may also provide an insight into the motivation level of the participants, depending on their impressions about the beneficial factors.
Question 4: Have the types of discussions you have with colleagues changed This question is framed, in order to observe the exchange of perceptions between the participants and find out whether any collaborative activity or thought process can be initiated
Question 5: Is there any difference between your interaction with fellow UG participants and non- UG participants . The answer to this question should be able to provide us with a measure of absorbsion of course materials by the participants and the confidence thereby acquired.
Question 6. Have you made any changes in your professional practice as a direct result of your participation . Since changes in the professional practice can be effected on many issues and also in many ways, this question has been divided into sub-categories. The participant will be able to specify whether the changes to his practice are made with reference to students, parents, colleagues, school administration, classroom practice or any other matter. Since there is a possibility of making multiple changes in any or all of these subcategories, a choice is provided in the questionnaire in terms of approximate number of changes made in each sub-category.
The UG conducted exit surveys for the first semester modules to seek opinions of the effectiveness of their courses in general. They asked for elaborate responses from the participants, which include perceived strengths and weaknesses of the program, along with suggestions to improve its effectiveness.
Fitness of purpose: The questionnaire thus designed demonstrates fitness of purpose, as it is qualitative in nature and attempts to satisfy the main objectives of this study, as enumerated in the introduction.

Findings:
The research enquiry module designed for the study was applied to the School of Creative Science (SCS) at Sharjah. The number of participants was 23. Out of these, 16 participants returned the completed questionnaire. Only a few questions were left unanswered by a couple of participants. The findings of the study are described below:
1. Reasons of attending the course: Around 30% of the respondents saw it as an easy opportunity to enhance their qualifications, and 50% of them generally view it as a means of improving career prospects. Only the other 50% of them expressed the need for professional development. One participant wrote about the desire to contribute to the teaching practice.
2. Challenging factors during the course: 80% of the participants felt that they do not get sufficient time to do reading and research work needed to complete the course. Since they have to attend to the teaching duties too, they find the balancing of priorities too challenging. Around 40% of the respondents felt that the school support is lacking. One respondent had difficulty with the language, and another one saw this as a challenge to his thought process.
3. Most beneficial aspects of the course: Around 85 % of the participants stated, though with slight variations that better understanding of teaching requirements and an opportunity for collaboration were the most beneficial aspects of the course.
4. Around 75% of the teachers reported that their discussions with colleagues changed qualitatively.
5. Similarly around 70 % of the participants reported that their interaction with UG and non-UG participants differed substantially.
6. The response regarding changes effected in their practice as a direct result of the training program indicates the following scenario:
Around 90% teachers made at least a few changes in their practice related to students, and 60% reported some changes in the interaction with colleagues. As far as the interaction with school administration is concerned, only 15% teachers reported many changes in their practice. Similarly, just 12% of participants changed the way they interacted with parents. The findings of the exit surveys conducted by the UG present the following results:
1. Survey of participants of course PF416: All the 19 participants returned the completed questionnaires.
Close to 100% of the participants are in agreement regarding improvement in developing knowledge, ability and critical understanding of theories. General observation by participants regarding their change in practice includes, collaborative effect towards CPD, better trusting relationships and understanding of the need of others, improvement in the range of teaching, greater use of observational and reflective practices, as well as greater motivation to look for further professional responsibility.
2. Survey of participants of course PF410: Out of 21 participants, 20 responded to the survey.
In this survey, only about 55% to 65% respondents were positive on the improvement of critical understanding of the subject, professional development and teaching skills. Surprisingly around 25% teachers reported that they were not sure of the positive impact of the course. General observation by the participants indicates willingness to implement changes in lesson plans to suit student needs, use modified assessment tools and try a variety of group activities and get involved in on-going research related to teaching practice.
Overall trends in response patterns: It is seen that there is a general consensus regarding positive outcome of the courses with reference to teaching practices, in all the three surveys. However the high percentage of unsure responses in the survey of participants of course PF410 suggests that the treatment of the evaluation process has to be suitably modified for each of the courses, as the same participants responded to the surveys of both, the PF410 and PF416 courses, and reported differing response patterns. Shortage of time for preparation and study, and lack of support are other important observations which are to be considered.
Discussion:
Analysis of the findings:
A careful review of the findings suggests that around 80 % of the participants have opted for the UG course, because they are interested to enhance their career prospects and their capabilities in their chosen field of work. Another factor, which cannot be discounted, is that some of them may have actually joined the course because it is made as a compulsory requirement by their school. If the survey is modified suitably to detect such variances, a better insight can be realized. The present survey shows that about 85 % of the teachers are convinced about the benefits from the course. The surveys conducted by the university however present a different perspective. The same group of participants has been surveyed after attending two different courses, namely, Theories of teaching and learning (PF410) and Mentoring & Coaching (PF416). While all the participants agreed that the course PF416 has been responsible for improvement in their knowledge and capabilities, a substantially large percentage of teachers were not sure after attending the course PF410. There appears a possibility that the effectiveness of different courses may vary depending upon the subject matter and/or its delivery techniques. The requirement of certain subjects may include other infrastructure support like special equipment and laboratories etc. Therefore these aspects need to be included while designing further surveys.
The most challenging factor as expressed by almost all the participants is the non-availability of time and support. This is really conclusive evidence that a real and practical problem exists in this area. Just as classroom teaching is considered as the basic responsibility of a teacher, CPD is also to be considered as an equally important part of the basic responsibility of a teacher. All the people involved with CPD, especially the school administration managers, must absorb this fact, so that they may officially allocate proper time and other resources, as a long term investment for the development of their school.
Realisation of research objectives
In the context of the present topic of study, findings suggest that the four objectives set out for this research are achieved. The intended positive effects of the CPD program are evidenced in the responses of the participants.
Strengths of the study: The participants reflect, in their general observation, positive common factors in the outcomes of the surveys. A majority of participants indicate improvement in the teaching practice, capabilities and motivation for continual improvement. Some of the participants are found to be proactive and have responded elaborately. There appears to be a commonality present in the response to problem areas like lack of preparation time, lack of proper support from parent institutions. The common reasons for opting for such courses are also evidenced, which are up-gradation of teaching capabilities, knowledge level as well as delivery techniques.
Weaknesses of the study:
It is felt that, in spite of the positive responses from the participants, it will be beneficial to refine the questions so as to enable the teachers to give more specific and constructive responses, which can be used for practical implementation. For example, instead of a general response regarding changes in teaching practice, it will be helpful to know what specific changes have been made, since the necessary changes could be different for subjects like science, mathematics etc. Similarly, when the teachers comment that they lack support from the administration, a clarification regarding the nature of support expected will enable the researcher, to suggest ways and means to the respective authorities to overcome these difficulties.
Ongoing research on the subject: Worldwide Study and research on various aspects of teacher education is going on regularly. The surveys conducted by government bodies and educational foundations as observed during review of literature, mainly deal with the actual effects of the change in teaching practices by assessing student performance before and after the CPD program. The effects of the programs on the beliefs and attitudes of the teachers as such does not constitute the main body of these assessments, and are generally given a cursory consideration. However, the belief and attitude aspect is closely linked to effective design and implementation of these programs. Different strategies are researched to attract teachers and involve them in the professional development programs (National Academy of Sciences; 1996), which will help in changing their attitudes and beliefs regarding CPD. Some of these are:
1. The teachers should be fully involved in the planning activities, and not just the 'teaching' component.
2. They should be made comfortable and treated as valued members of the committee, by listening to their comments and suggestions. Their opinions regarding their needs, interests and problems should be solicited.
3. The experience and knowledge of the teachers should be used to learn how they would react to the program being planned, as the teachers will be able to provide realistic and workable feedback on the planned activities.
4. If the teachers are encouraged to conduct some of the program activities, they can serve as models to demonstrate how particular teaching strategies should look in the class-room.
Some other incentives can also help in strengthening their attitudes and beliefs:
1. Continuing -education or college credit for salary placement is an effective method of teacher motivation.
2. Financial support is another attractive incentive to entice potential participants.
3. A budget to purchase equipment and supplies for use in classrooms with students, to implement new teaching techniques.
4. Enlisting support of the administration. Here a case study (National academy of sciences; 1996) relevant to administrative support illustrates the problems in enlisting support:
"One teacher successfully implemented a collaborative professional-development program this way, She identified the most important obstacles to implementation as the teachers' unwillingness to change their teaching styles and the administrators' lack of understanding of the nature of science; administrators did not support a program that would lead the teachers to change their styles. To help to overcome the administrative barrier, she regularly supplied the school administration with articles supporting the desired program. She then took administrators to see a similar program that was being successfully used in a nearby school district. After a year of intense advocacy, she submitted a proposal with goals, budget, management plan, and all possible benefits. The administrator granted approval."
Long term implementation and improvements in the quality of these programs will ultimately help in enhancing beliefs and attitudes. A three year study on the teaching practice due to professional development, conducted by the American Institutes for Research (n.d.), under contract with US department of Education's planning and evaluation service, focuses on the characteristics of professional development which are relevant in improvement of teaching practice. The findings of this study are as follows: The professional development, which focuses on higher order teaching strategy- for example the use of problems with no obvious solution- results in teachers' increasing their use of this strategy in the classroom. This effect is even stronger when the professional development has features of high quality, like reform type with increased group activities, collective participation, and coherence. The findings further suggest that a substantial change would occur if the teachers experienced a sustained and consistent high quality professional development, instead of one-time University courses. Unfortunately most teachers do not experience this situation, as it requires large amount of resources, both financial and operational. In practice it may not be possible for many schools to support sustained professional development programs for all the teaching staff. Therefore some schools have to choose between serving large number of teachers with less focused and short term professional development and providing high quality sustained activity to fewer teachers within the organization. Many schools have insufficient capacity to translate into practice, the knowledge about effective personal development. Infrastructure also needs to be developed, to design and implement the type of activities that teachers need to improve student learning. Wherever vast amounts of resources are employed, it is also necessary to judge the fitness of purpose and also assess whether value for money is obtained or not.
Another important factor that is likely to affect the teachers' attitudes is the lack of incentives, support and time for preparation. This aspect has been pointed out by most of the participants in our survey. The time required by teachers for study and update all the aspects of professional development, engage in research in teaching strategies, and work on the changes in their professional practice will require them to be free from their regular teaching duties for considerable amount of time. This further requires additional planning and allocation of funds. Program planners need to research on this topic in collaboration with the teachers to arrive at proper scheduling of the dual responsibilities of teachers, that is the primary teaching responsibility, as well as engagement in the CPD activity.
Uniformity of research Design: Though we can conclude, at times indirectly, that the responses recorded serve to answer our research objectives, it is necessary to base our research design on a uniform pattern, irrespective of subject matter. If required, certain questions can be left out as ' not applicable' for a particular subject. The responses of such surveys can be easily correlated, and comparative studies can be done. Looking further, coordinated efforts may also be initiated among the research community working in the field of school education, to have uniformity in their research methods, so that comparative analysis is made possible.
Conclusions:
This research study was conducted with the objective of finding the effect of attending UG courses on the teachers' practices, attitudes and beliefs, and more specifically the common perceptions of the benefits and difficulties accrued from such participation.
The present small-scale research has brought out various aspects of Continual Professional Development in Teacher Education.
Understanding of the subject matter: It has helped in gaining insight into the complexity as well as the depth of the subject matter of teacher education., which includes issues like development of teacher education programs with suitable content and delivery techniques for various disciplines. It has also increased the awareness and understanding of the difficulties in the implementation of these programs, in collaboration with policy makers researchers, teachers, school administrators, funding institutions and evaluation agencies, actual evaluation process and analysis of the findings for further perusal.
Understanding of research methodology: This study has also facilitated further understanding of various qualitative and quantitative methods of research as applied to professional development, and also formative and summative approaches to the study. This has particularly helped during design of research, and will also be useful while doing a design review for further studies. The literature survey has been enlightening, so as to introduce past and current research activity and findings on not only the present research topic, but also various other connected and important broad issues.
Robustness of findings: This study resulted in some concrete findings regarding the impact of teachers education programs on the attitudes, motivation levels and beliefs of the teachers, which can be used as a basis for further research. Both, the positive aspects and drawbacks were clearly communicated through this study.
Recommendations for policy and practice: On the basis of this study, it is recommended that
1. The evaluation process should be conducted after a suitable time gap after completion of CPD courses, so that the teachers get sufficient opportunity for assimilation of acquired inputs and strengthening of beliefs and attitudes, and can give more considered than mere perceptive responses.
2. The questionnaires should be prepared with more specific points so that focused responses are generated.
3. The questions asked should include other factors responsible for influencing attitudes and beliefs, like incentives and support issues.
4. The questionnaires should reflect willingness on the part of educators to involve teachers in the design of development programs.














References

American Institutes of research, Does professional development change teaching practice-result from a three year study, Available from:
www.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/teaching/epdp/execsum.pdf
[cited 17 may 2007]

Darling -Hammond, Linda, , May/June 2000, How Education Matters, Journal of teacher education, vol. 51, (No.3), Available from:
http://jte.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/51/3/166
[cited 13 may 2007]

Mason, J., (1996), Research Design: Qualitative and quantitative Approaches, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage publications, Available from:
www.unr.edu/bench/chap04.pdf
[cited 19 may 2007]

McKernan, James, 1996, Curriculum Action Research, A Handbook of methods and resources for the reflective practitioner, 2nd Edition, London, Kogan Page Ltd..

National Academy of Sciences, 1996,The role of scientists in the professional development of Science teachers, Available from:
http://books.nap.edu/html/role/chap5.html
[cited 19 may 2007]

National Institute of child health and human Development, December 1-2, 2005, march 20-21, 2006, Child and adolescent Development Research and teacher Education: Evidence bases pedagogy, policy & practice, Summary of Round table meetings, p34,

NCATE, NICHD & NCATE identify gaps in research practice, in child & adolescent development within Educator Programs, Research section, National Council of Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) , Available from: http://www.ncate.org
[cited 16 may 2007]

Ofsted,2002, Continuing Professional development for teachers in schools, A report from Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Schools. Available from:
www.ofsted.gov.uk
[cited 17 may 2007]

Professional Development Forum, 2004-5, Analysis of responses, Annual Review of Delivery of PDA's, document section, Available from:
www.fepdfscotland.co.uk/dundeestatement.htm
[cited 14 may 2007]

The Eisenhower Professional Development Program,December 1999, Teacher Outcomes, Designing Effective Professional Development, Lessons from the Eisenhower program, Chapter 3, Available from:
www.ed.gov/inits/teachers/eisenhower/
[cited 18 may 2007] Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“University education courses for teachers Research Paper”, n.d.)
University education courses for teachers Research Paper. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/education/1515898-university-education-courses-for-teachers
(University Education Courses for Teachers Research Paper)
University Education Courses for Teachers Research Paper. https://studentshare.org/education/1515898-university-education-courses-for-teachers.
“University Education Courses for Teachers Research Paper”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/education/1515898-university-education-courses-for-teachers.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF University education courses for teachers

Traditional University Education verses Online Education courses

...? Traditional Education verses Online Education s Insert Insert Grade Insert Traditional University Education verses Online Education courses Introduction Traditional University Education involves face to face lectures. As technology grows, especially the internet, there is an option to acquire higher education via online institutions (Scagnoli, 2005). Universities have opened up opportunities for students who would not prefer traditional university module to acquire this education online (Capra, 2011). Online education, which is in the category of distance learning, involves studying via the internet (Amy, 2009). There is minimal face to face interaction because all assignments are posted, done, and submitted online. This education best...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Diversity in Education

There is a form of cultural imperialism that exists within countries and that is, arguably, destructive of personality and helps create school failure where success is possible. Moroccan children in Belgium, Turkish children in Germany, Pakistani and West Indian children in Britain, Algerian children in France, African-American, Hmong, and Latino children in the United States are alienated from their own cultures in their schools and learn to feel marginal to the mainstreams of thought and behavior in many of the communities in which they live. This type of cultural imperialism exists throughout the world, not merely in highly industrialized countries. It affects how Basarwa children are taught in Botswana's Kalahari Desert, how m...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

Outlining Explicit Learning Objectives and Outcomes for Teachers and Students

Explicit learning is presented by teaching the specific concepts individually and mastery occurs then after. The main key in such a mode of teaching is being highly structured in every activity that is undertaken inside the classroom can be considered as part of the organization of the technique. One of the defining features of the technique is the fact that the teacher commonly points out the part of the lesson where they are in, thus, the term used is explicit teaching (Boyles, 2002).
The explicit form of teaching can be considered to fit lessons that are considered to introduce certain concepts, ideas or skills that are needed to be learned and that the students have low familiarity or experience with. For that matter, the...
10 Pages(2500 words)Report

Children and Young People's Reflections on an Education

The reforms have to be brought from the top side of a nation, whereby the government needs to take bold steps to promote it no matter how hard it is on their budgets. Similarly, child development is a very significant aspect in the times of today. There is immense importance which is given to this subject. (Nespor, 1997) The basis is backed up with sufficient data and research which goes a long in establishing the fact that child development indeed owes a lot of attributes on the part of the people who are related to the child – the parents and/or its guardians. The aspects of love and training at the same time holds true for their balance bringing up the regime and this without a shadow of a doubt is a significant thing to...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

School Social Worker in Special Education

Social workers are required to understand the diversity of families and help individuals and families cope with the implications and impacts of learning disabilities, physical or cognitive problems. Individual treatment may be required in a safe environment and relationship in which to deal with issues. The work of the school social worker in special education is related to a diverse number of areas, in which he/ she is required to fulfill various roles and responsibilities (Turner, 2005).

Approximately one-half of school social workers are found to be practicing with elementary school children. School social workers support and help to prevent future problems by intervening with at-risk children during elementary schoo...
11 Pages(2750 words)Case Study

Which of the Business Objectives Might Best Be Applied to the Southampton Solent University

In other words, there is no explicit reference to the achievement of long term objectives and the people being involved in the business with the express intention of making profits.

In this context, the Southampton Solent University’s existence as a business organization in the strategic business sense would be defined as a clear attempt at continuously engaging in the present and future activities with a view to achieving its long term objectives of which the satisfaction of stakeholders, particularly shareholders, is of paramount importance. Its mission statement is “The pursuit of inclusive and flexible forms of Higher Education which meet the needs of employers and prepare students to succeed in a fast-...
8 Pages(2000 words)Coursework

Activism: Teachers, Therapists and Self-Esteem

Many activists present their ideas, attitudes or thoughts in the form of art, in some creative endeavor. Art shows the "story" in a visual way that the individual is attempting to speak out about, in such a way as to get others involved with helping the cause.

When many people think of activists, they may not think about therapists or teachers as being in this mix of ideas. Often, they are the ones who are quiet when it comes to activism because they can feel they are removed from what is happening in society on an everyday basis. However, they are in the middle of controversy all of the time whether they understand this or not.

As I was thinking about a project to do, I thought it would be interesting to get...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Mary Wollstonecraft on Education

Understanding that women are just as able as men in many capacities and some very important ways that she excels causes one to realize that no one should be able to take her rights away. It is the mother who gives protection for the initial nine months to the divine creative force of nature – regardless of whether the offspring is male or female. But what is prescribed in various secular and spiritual texts and what is practiced in society currently are contradictory. A female child is victimized during every step of her life, from the moment of birth, notwithstanding the fact that it is she who sacrifices at those stages. Women need to be the social, spiritual and legal equals of men. These were the arguments that Mary Woll...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment

Approach to Education: Comparison of Philosophies of A S Neill & Paul Hirst

He believed that to impose anything by authority is wrong. The child should not do anything until he comes to an opinion – his own opinion- that it should be done. He states clearly his commitment to freedom of a child: ‘we set out to make a school in which we should allow children to be themselves. In order to do this, we had to renounce all discipline, all directions, all suggestions, all moral training, and all religious instruction. The child should never be forced to learn, Attendance at lessons should be voluntary whatever the age of the child. Only learning that is voluntarily undertaken has any value, and children will know themselves when they are ready to learn. (Summerhill , p.37)

Children will on...
9 Pages(2250 words)Report

Juvenile Delinquency and Education: A Comparison of Public and Private Education

Perhaps a reason for that was that child mortality rates were high. It was not considered feasible to form attachments with children. They were left up to nature and the survival of the fittest approach. However, at the end of the eighteenth century, the age of “The Enlightenment” brought about changes regarding the status of children. This new cultural awareness was a part of the humanist movements of the age. They were now considered to be the welfare and responsibility of the state. The strict disciplinarian ways were giving way to nurturing and concern. At this point, children were now considered a distinct group.

It wasn’t until the establishment of The Juvenile Justice Courts were children offici...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Proposal

Management Theory and Practice in the Early Childhood Education Industry

As pointed out in a study by Osgood and Halsall (2007) where they carried out research to examine the position of women in leadership or management positions, a “glass ceiling” exists for women in the academic setting, which could significantly impair motivation. Since many of the individuals employed in the early education sector are women, addressing this issue is even more important because these individuals are faced with the difficult task of shaping young minds while also dealing with the problems associated with the actual physical care of very young children. The quality of professionals in this sector is vital because it impacts the growth and development of the children that they care for. The degree of invol...
6 Pages(1500 words)Coursework
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic University education courses for teachers for FREE!

Contact Us