Primary school teachers have always taught children who represent a wide range of abilities, achievements and experiences. However it is only in recent years we have begun to witness increased compassion and understanding emerging towards children's individual needs.
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Specific learning difficulty means that there are particular learning difficulties, which affect certain cognitive skills such as memory, sequencing or perception, rather than a general learning difficulty that affects most aspects of learning. Specific Learning Difficulties may include Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, and ADHD etc.
Current perspectives are geared towards fostering primary school teachers' confidence. It is essential that all primary school teachers are effective in their ability to manage a diverse range of abilities and needs within the primary classroom. Success in this area is particularly prosperous in schools where staff works together in unison, adopting a team approach. It is vital to have a designated person within a school, which teachers are able to approach for support and advice when they encounter diversity in the classroom for which they feel they are not adequately prepared. Although there is a range of in-service training available, which fosters professional development, primary school teachers only usually receive training in the area they have curriculum responsibility for. Therefore the majority of teacher's may be inadequately prepared for the vast range of learning diversity encountered within the primary classroom.
To assess the suitability of current perspective...
Therefore the majority of teacher's may be inadequately prepared for the vast range of learning diversity encountered within the primary classroom.
To assess the suitability of current perspectives, it is important to define the term 'Special Educational Needs'. This is a very difficult area to define. Warnock (1982) states that 'the concept of 'special need' carries a fake objectivity. For one of the main, indeed almost overwhelming, difficulties is to decide whose needs are special, and what 'special' means'.
Firstly it is important to note that when Warnock introduced the term 'special educational needs', it was envisaged that this was something that the child may have at certain times, and in some areas more than others. It was never meant to be a way of attaching a label to a child, more a recognition that a child may need additional support in some areas. Nerveless, although it was introduced with good intentions, the tendency can often be to label children rather than needs.
Special needs terminology is in debate because of reasons such as this. Solity (1991) has argued that the term 'special educational needs', 'actively encourages discriminatory practices', of which separate seating arrangements, being withdrawn from lessons in the mainstream classroom and being given token work are just some common practices.
Recently we have encountered current debates, which argue for and against integration. There is a push towards all children being educated in mainstream schools. However whether this is good or bad depends on a variety of factors, for example, resources available, school ethos and staff training.
It is important to also recognise that
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This research project therefore looks towards instructional reforms along the correlation between Literacy instruction not only in improving literacy in general, but also in alleviating the lack of self-esteem in learners. It attempts to establish the necessarily co-dependent nature of elevating a student’s self esteem while raising their literacy levels during a Wave 3 intervention activity.
Dyslexia is particularly important in the school system as it means that a person may have difficulties in comprehension of written language, and may be unable to compose their thoughts (Peer & Reid, 2012). There are various different proposed causes of dyslexia, including evolutionary theories and those revolving around difficulties in the cerebellum, as does dysgraphia (Nicholson & Fawcett, 2009).
There has been a growing concern across all sectors in the globe to address social disparities in every area of the society. Conspicuous among them have been the advocacy for recognition of the disabled group as part of the society and subject to entitlement of human rights.
It is essential that the effects of the condition on the individual and his learning skills be examined as well as the available interventions and support he can be given in order to manage the learning disability and live a normal life despite his condition.
Psychological and behavioral studies, however, warn against relying on signs and folk beliefs in detecting learning difficulties. If these patently unscientific methods are made as basis of instructional programs, it will create more harm than good. Thus, many state laws today compel the education sector to use systematic methods of assessment that would measure possible obstacles to learning with more confidence and accuracy.
There are different kinds of children who can be identified with learning difficulty - those who have physical disability, sensory impairments, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, or intellectual disability. Specific learning difficulties can also be in the form of language, reading, writing or numerical (mathematical) difficulties.
As Wadlington has said, "Dyslexia is not due to inadequate intelligence, lack of motivation, poor instruction, vision or hearing problems, cultural disadvantages, or other extrinsic factors" (Wadlington, 2005a, p. 5) which is evident from Jenny's case, despite her motivation and will, she is unable to achieve desired success.
variety of types that can be considered as learning disorder or difficulty yet parameters that measure intelligence such as the IQ may fall within the normal range. For that matter, although the learning disability can be connected with certain processes in the brain, the
Likewise it is also important to distinguish these learning disabilities from learning difficulties because the diagnosis will determine the corrective teaching methods used. The purpose of this research is therefore to compare and contrast dyslexia and